Fats

What are Fats:

The food which we take from various sources which provides us energy and other substances the body needs. The food which we take contain three major nutrients and they are carbohydrate, fate, protein.The body uses them as a source of energy for maintaining normal metabolic activities.We get carbohydrates from wheat, cereal crops, potatoes, peas and other starchy vegetables, protein from meat, egg, pulses, etc and fat from oil seeds, butter, cream, milk, etc.

Fat is also known as fatty acid and it is made up of three important elements : carbon, hydrogen, oxygen but the amount of carbon is in maximum quantity. It is an important macronutrient and  is also an important part of diet for all animals and humans. Body stores fat for protection, warmth, and energy. Different types of fats that are saturated and unsaturated keep our body healthy in different ways.


Different Sources of Fat:

There are different sources from where we can extract fat or fatty as they are important sources of stored energy in our body as fat happens to be the most concentrated source of energy in the diet as they provide about 8 to 9 calories per gram. Important source of fats are given below:

  • Avocados.

  • Cheese..

  • Dark Chocolate. 

  • Whole Eggs. 

  • Fatty Fish. 

  • Nuts. 

  • Chia Seeds. 

 

Classification of Fats:

Based on various factor fats are classified into various categories they are:

  • Fats or Fatty Acids: these types of fat refers to any type of fat but mostly they are solid fats which are in solid form at room temperature. 

  • Lipids: This can refer to any type, regardless of whether it is liquid or solid.

  • Oils: They describe any fat that is liquid at room temperature.

  • Animal Fats: Among these are butter, cream, and fats in meats, such as lard.

  • Vegetable Fats: fats which are present in olives and avocados. 


Types of Fats:

There are mainly two types of fat they are:

  1. Saturated fats

  2. Unsaturated fats


1. Saturated Fats:

Saturated fat is those fat which remains in solid form at room temperature they are also called solid fats. Their basic carbon structure is saturated with hydrogen atoms. This type of fat may increase health risk if it is consumed for a long period. A high intake of saturated fat increases the level of low density lipoprotein(LDP) cholesterol in the body, this increases the risk of cardiovascular disease or causes stroke in arteries.Various sources are:

  1. dairy products, except those that are fat-free

  2. baked goods, snack foods, and french fries

  3. some vegetable oils, including coconut oil, palm oil, etc. It is not healthy to replace saturated fat in the diet with refined sugar, which is also bad for health.


2. Unsaturated Fat: 

Unsaturated fat remains in liquid form at room temperature, and they are mostly extracted from plant oils. It is a kind of good fat.

There are mainly two types of unsaturated fats, they are:


A. Monounsaturated Fats: they are fat molecules that are not saturated with hydrogen atoms as each fat molecule is bonded with one hydrogen only. They may lower low density lipoprotein level or  bad cholesterol level. It reduces risk of heart attack.

Sources of monounsaturated fatty acids are:

  1. olives and olive oil  

  2. nuts and nut butters  

  3. avocados


B. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid: They are not saturated with hydrogen atoms, they are good for health especially those from fish and algae , as they are known as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. As omega-3 fatty acids protect the body from heart disease, improve brain, joint and eye health.


Source of Polyunsaturated Fats:

  1. oily fish, such as sardines, mackerel, trout, salmon, and herring

  2. safflower, grapeseed, soybean, and sunflower oils

  3. nuts, seeds, and pastured eggs


What are Trans Fats:

They are manufactured fats. They are products which add hydrogen to liquid vegetables oil to make them more solid in texture. They are also known as hydrogenated fats. Major examples of trans fats are cake, cookies, fried potatoes, potato chips, etc.


Essential Fats: 

There are so many fats which are synthesized by our body, but there fats also which are taken through diet and this type of fat are called essential fats as they are taken in an indirect way for proper functioning of the body. Example:  Linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acids


How Fats are Digested in Our Body:

When we intake food fat is separated from other food substances and in this small intestine there emulsification occurs by intine bile juice further this emulsified fat is absorbed by intestinal cells. Long -chain fatty acids form a large protein structure known as chylomicron and this transport fat to the lymph system.


Why Stored Fat is Necessary for Our Body:

Stored fat perform various essential function like:

  1. They maintain normal body function.

  2. They insulate vital organs.

  3. They store energy and help in metabolism.


Do You Know Facts:

  1. Fat is essential to our diet like protein and carbohydrates are.

  2. Polyunsaturated fats reduces heart disease risk.

  3. Lipase enzymes help in digestion of fats. They are secreted by pancreas.


MCQ Based on Fats:

1. Carbon Atom in Fatty Acid are ………………..than those of Sugar:

  1. less reduced

  2. more reduced

  3. more oxidised

Answer: (b)


2. Precursor for all fungal infection sterol are:

  1. Lanosterol

  2. cholesterol

Answer: (a)


3. Which of the Following is Cyclic Fatty Acid:

  1. cerebronic acid

  2. oleic acid

  3. chaulmoogric acid 

Answer:(c)


4. Best Source of Trans Fatty Acid in Diet are:

  1. vegetables

  2. ground nut

  3. dairy products

Answer: (c)

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Define Saturated Fat?

Saturated fats are mainly solid at room temperature and they lack double bonds between individual carbon atoms. They are harmful for our body.

2. Define Trans Fat?

They are manufactured fats. They are products which add hydrogen to liquid vegetables oil to make them more solid in texture. They are also known as hydrogenated fats.

3. Difference Between Saturated and Unsaturated Fat?

Saturated Fats

Unsaturated Fats 

1. Contains a single bond.

1. Contain at least double bond.

2. Would not quickly spoil.

2. Spoil quickly.