A crop is a plant or an animal product that is allowed to grow and also harvested for-profit purposes. The crops can be consumed for daily uses as food like grains, vegetables, etc. and can be traded commercially. Most farmers do grow different types of crops in India and other countries on various farms. We can also grow some farm products in our gardens by following proper growing and harvesting processes. Soil plays an essential part in different crops to grow big. The agricultural science that studies crops is called Agronomy.
Agriculture is a dominant sector in India, contributing 17% to the total GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The increasing population of India is dependent on this sector for its living.
The crops are classified mainly into six groups.
These food crops are harvested and consumed for daily purposes by human beings. For example, fruits, vegetables, nuts, spices, grains, etc.
Feed crops are harvested to feed livestock like a cow, goats, etc. Crops like oats, alfalfa, grass, grains, etc. are food for feeding farm animals. They grow in agricultural land and have enough nutrients to make them healthy. There are subtypes of feed crops:
Forage crops like grasses, alfalfa, etc.
Principle crops like corn, barley, etc.
Fiber crops are grown for their fibers that contain a large amount of cellulose that is good for strength. For example, cotton, jute, coir, etc. They are traditionally crafted in big factories and then placed in markets for trading—for example, cotton clothes, jute bags, etc.
The oil crops like canola and corn are consumed by industries. The oils like olive oil, sesame oil, etc. are harvested for the consumption in cooking, hair, etc.
Normally, ornamental crops are used in a house or for commercial use. They are grown in nurseries and are harvested for landscape gardening. In many developing countries like Kenya, they take a great part in economic activities.
The crops that are produced in industries or factories are called industrial crops. For example, we get rubber naturally from rubber plants, used for floorings, balloons, shoes, etc.
The Kharif crops are cultivated during monsoon season in India, i.e. from June to September. These crops are also known as monsoon crops—for example, bajra, ragi, groundnut, cotton, etc. The time for crop cultivation is during monsoon season, June, and harvested by September.
Let us learn about a few Kharif crops and their daily use.
Being staple food, it grows in high rainfall areas.
It requires plenty of water for cultivation.
It is the most important cereal in our country.
In some countries, it is called corn.
The second type of crop in India is the Rabi crop. The word Rabi is derived from an Arabic meaning spring. The period for these crops is from October to March. They are grown in the winter season and harvested at the beginning of the spring season. For example, wheat, gram, mustard, peas, barley, etc. These crops are not easily affected by rainfall as they need less amount of water to grow.
It is also one of the most important staple foods.
The chapatti that we have is originally made from wheat.
We capture mustard from mustard seed plants.
We extract oil from it and use it in cooking.
This is the third type of crop in India. The crops grow in the Zaid season, i.e. between March to June. This is the shortest season compared to Kharif and Rabi seasonal crops. For example, bitter gourd, watermelon, etc.
We all generally prefer our salads.
It has health benefits too like promoting hydration, rich in vitamins, etc.
It is considered for weight-loss.
It boosts our immune system.
Q1. What are the Different Types of Crops in India?
A1. There are three different types of crops in India that grow seasons wise.
Q2. Set a Few Examples of Kharif Crops.
A2. Rice, millets, etc.
Q3. Which Type of Season is Preferred for Rabi Crops?
A3. Rabi is one of the types of crops in India that grow from October to March.
Q4. Write One Use of the Following Kharif Crops.
a)Pulses - They are high in fiber and play a good role in preventing illnesses like diabetes.
b)Bajra - We use bajra in the form of flour.
Q5. How Much Does the Agricultural Sector Contribute to India’s GDP?
Q6. Name a Few Animals to Whom You Can Feed with Feed Crops.
A6. Cows, goats, etc.