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Botanical Name of Groundnut

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Groundnuts - An Introduction

IVSAT 2024

We all are aware of the term groundnut. It's one of the most common snacks and we usually call it peanut. Peanuts are consumed for nutrition and are one of the favourite edible things. However, did you know that groundnut is not the botanical name of groundnut? The botanical name of groundnut is Arachis hypogaea.

In this article, we are going to understand about the groundnut plant, its family, the origin of groundnut and its side effects.

Groundnut Plant

Groundnut or peanut plant is an herbaceous annual plant in the family Fabaceae. It is grown for its oil and edible nuts. Peanut plants are tiny, typically erect, thin stemmed plants with feather-like leaves. The leaves are organised in alternative pairs and have leaf-life attachments close to the stalks. They have yellow, orange, cream and white flowers.

Arachis Hypogaea

Arachis hypogaea L. is the scientific name for the groundnut or most commonly referred to as the peanut. A hypogaea is produced all around the world, however the main producers are Argentina, African countries, India and China being its lead producer. Most of its production is destined to European countries and also the U.S. where it's consumed like a nut or used to produce peanut butter. The Groundnut is mostly identified because it's a good source for protein and calories.

Groundnut Family

Arachis hypogaea L. usually referred to as peanut or the groundnut is an annual oil seed that was first delineated by Carl Linnaeus. It's a member of the Leguminosae family and member of the Papilionaceae subfamily commonly referred to as Legume or Bean family. The Leguminosae family is the third largest family within the “Domain Plantae”, containing over 600 genera and 14,000 known species.

Origin of Groundnut

Arachis hypogaea could be a legume that originated and is native to South America (Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil and Bolivia). The headwaters of the Paraguay river within the region of Mato Grosso is taken into account to be the birthplace of the genus. They expanded to different regions and mutated, giving the birth of different varieties of Arachis. The cultivated A. hypogaea originated in a region of southern Bolivia and northwestern Argentina on the slopes of the mountain range referred to as Andes. From its humble beginning it was able to migrate into different continents and can now be grown in tropical and warm temperatures worldwide for its seeds and its oil.

Peanut and Groundnut

  • Peanut could be a form of groundnut; groundnut might refer to peanuts as well as specific types of roots and tubers.

  • Peanut is specifically used as nutritional supplements and as peanut butter, whereas groundnut is particularly used as oil that has nutritional value.

  • The bambara groundnut ripens its circular shaped pods underground, whereas the peanut matures underground as a cylindrical pod.

Side Effects of Groundnut

Along with advantages, there are some side effects of groundnut also that are stated below:

  • Peanuts are high in calories and might cause weight gain.

  • Peanuts cause the most common allergies and conjointly some serious reactions.

  • Peanuts are dangerous for our health as they contain high amounts of saturated fats.

Interesting Facts

  • The peanut is a legume, though it's usually mistaken for a nut and consumed like one.

  • A small amount of peanuts provides lots of protein and fibre, and may take care of hunger pangs, while at the same helps to control blood-sugar levels.

  • In some impoverished countries, malnourished kids are given packets stuffed with a paste composed of roasted peanuts, sugar, vegetable oil and powdered milk. Eaten up 2 or 3 times a day, these 500-calorie packets can save lives.

Conclusion

Groundnut or peanut plant is an herbaceous annual plant within the family Fabaceae. It's grown for its oil and edible nuts. Peanut plants are tiny, typically erect, thin stemmed plants with feather-like leaves. Arachis hypogaea L. is the scientific name for the groundnut. A hypogaea is produced all around the world, however the main producers are Argentina, India and China. Peanuts are high in calories and cause most typical allergies and additionally some serious reactions.

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FAQs on Botanical Name of Groundnut

1. Can groundnuts cause high cholesterol ?

High cholesterol levels are a serious concern for several people. However, groundnuts are 100% cholesterol-free. According to the most recent analysis, a diet rich in groundnut products can lower your cholesterol, lower your risk of cardiovascular disease and provide protection against cancer. Peanuts contain Mg and potassium—two minerals that help to control your blood pressure. The fibre and protein in peanuts are useful. A study shows that eating peanuts often helps decrease blood pressure, even among individuals with high blood pressure. 

2. How long does it take for groundnuts to grow?

Groundnuts sometimes require a minimum of 100 to one hundred fifty days from planting to maturity, depending on the variety planted. Flowering continues over a long period and pods are in all stages of development at harvest. When the plant has matured and the peanuts are ready for harvest, the farmer waits till the soil isn't too wet or too dry before digging. Groundnuts grow best in sandy soil with less than 15% clay. The most effective time to plant is from early November to no later than twenty five November.

3. What are the uses and advantages of groundnut plants?

Groundnut seed may be consumed raw (non-heated), boiled, and cooked and additionally used to make confections and its flour to make baked products. The groundnut shells are used for creating particle boards or used as fuel or filler in the fertiliser and feed industry. Groundnut haulms constitute nutritious fodder for farm animals. Peanuts are an especially good source of healthful fats, protein, and fibre. They additionally contain lots of K, phosphorus, magnesium, and B vitamins. Despite being high in calories, peanuts are nutrient-rich and low in carbohydrates.


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