In humans, reproduction takes place sexually, which involves the fusion of male and female gametes leading to fertilization. The fertilized egg grows to develop into an embryo which is implanted on the uterus where the baby grows for nine months until the baby birth.
Along with mammals some of the invertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes carry their offsprings inside the body. Some of these mammals are ovoviviparous with the eggs hatched inside the mother’s body. Some of the mammals are viviparous where the development of the embryo takes place in the body.
The process of bringing the child from the womb or uterus is called baby delivery or parturition or childbirth. It is caused by the initiation of hormones that helps the muscular walls contract when the baby is ready to feed and breathe during the developmental stage. In some of the species, the baby is precocial, which means it can move around immediately after birth. In some cases, the offspring is altricial which means it depends on the parents. In the case of marsupials, the offspring are born at the immature stage where it further develops in the mother’s womb pouch.
Usually, humans produce single offspring at a time except in some cases where the twins or triplets are born. The most common way in which a child is born is through vaginal delivery which is considered the normal way of birth. The baby’s head and shoulders must go through a specific sequence to pass through the pelvis of a mother.
Facing the fetal head to the transverse position, where the infant’s head is faced across the pelvis.
The fetal head is moved downwards and flexion is created.
The baby’s head is rotated 90 degrees to the occipital-anterior position such as the baby’s face towards the rectum of the mother.
Now the fetal head is bowed and the chin is placed on the chest which helps the backside of the head to pass the birth canal. Until the whole head passes out.
The fetal head restores its position to have a relationship with the shoulder by maintaining the angle of a 45 degree.
The corkscrew movement of the head is repeated by the shoulders to pass the whole body through the vagina.
The newborn meaning refers to the baby in the first 28 days of the birth, it also applies to the premature or postmature, or full-term infants. Fetus is the term used before the birth.
The biochemical substances that are produced by the fetus induce labor. The biochemical substances are the fetal hormones that include oxytocin. In the fetal lung, surfactant production does not take place till the last stage of gestation. When the fetus is ready for breathing this hormone is produced and it acts as a switch for labor.
The 4 stages of labor include:
1. First Stage: Dilation stage: During the early labor the uterine contracts and the labor pains are found at intervals of 20 to 30 minutes that will last for 40 seconds. It is usually a slight pain that occurs in the back. The contractions increase until the end of the first stage and when the dilation of the cervix is completed a muscular organ called an amnion present in the uterus compresses. As the amnion is a fluid-filled sac the contraction of its muscular walls diminishes its cavity. For the women who are in first labor the average time required for the dilation is about 13 to 14 hours.
2. Second Stage: Expulsion: When the cervix is fully dilated and when delivery pain starts the amnion breaks. The abdominal muscles get contracted with each deep breath. As the child passes through the birth canal the pain increases. The child’s head is moved out first where the body will be moved later.
3. Third Stage: Placental stage: After the normal delivery process the cavity of the uterus will be diminished completely. The site where the placenta is attached becomes reduced and it is being separated from the many places of the uterus. Within a few minutes, the placenta gets compressed completely and it is moved into the vagina from where it gets expelled out. This stage is of short duration which lasts for almost 15 minutes. In some cases, the placenta is removed immediately or it may be delayed which further causes bleeding where the removal of the placenta through surgery is required.
4. Fourth Stage: Recovery stage: The pain experienced during the labor can be reduced by using drugs, or regional nerve blocks, or a combination of the methods.
Pregnancy and childbirth are important and play a special role in women’s life. Where the importance is given to healthcare during this time is most required as it has an impact on the child’s health. Birth meaning is as follows it is the process of bringing the fetus from the mother’s womb.
1. Write the Obstetrics Definition and Labor Pain Meaning.
Ans: The field of study that is concentrated on pregnancy, child delivery, and postpartum is called obstetrics.
The pain felt by the human during childbirth is called labor pain.
2. Mention the Infant’s Birth Summary.
Ans: The first stage starts with the contractions of the cervix, it lasts until the cervix is dilated completely and becomes thinner. The second stage is considered the active stage where the delivery of the baby takes place. One has to push by their own until the baby’s head is moved out completely after which it is easy to remove the baby from the cervix. When the baby is moved out completely the placenta gets detached from the walls of the uterus and it is moved immediately into the vagina from where it is removed.
3. Mention the Different Methods of How a Baby is Born.
Ans: There are different types of childbirth and delivery:
Cesarean section or C-section
Vaginal birth after C-section