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Biotechnology and its Applications

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What is Biotechnology?

The area of biology that is studied both technologically and therefore the application of living organisms and their components to develop, modify, and provide a useful product for human welfare. The term ‘Biotechnology’ was coined within the year 1919 by agricultural engineer Karoly Ereky, hence he's called the father of Biotechnology. Let us have a glance at a number of the important applications of Biotechnology.

Applications of Biotechnology

Biotechnology is widely utilized in different fields to switch and produce a useful product for human benefits. These applications include:

  • Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture

The application of Biotechnology within the field of agriculture is understood as Green Biotechnology or revolution. Biotechnology has contributed tons to the sector of agriculture and they include:

  • Organic agriculture

  • Agro-chemical based agriculture

  • Genetically engineered crop-based agriculture.

The application of Biotechnology has tripled the yield and therefore the food supply. Pest-resistant plants and genetically modified crops are introduced to extend food production and to feed the growing human population apart from regular crop production. Genetically modified crops have their genes altered by inserting the genes with desired characteristics. Bt cotton, Bt brinjal, and golden rice are a couple of samples of Genetically modified crops.

  • Applications of Biotechnology in Medicine

The recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology has added to the advancements within the field of healthcare by permitting the production of safe and simpler therapeutic drugs. The drugs are mainly produced by the method of gene-splicing. Humulin, the genetically modified insulin, is employed to treat diabetes and is produced through gene-splicing. Biotechnology has developed gene therapy which helps in the removal of the genetic disorders within the embryo. Other applications of Biotechnology within the field of medicines and molecular diagnosis include:

  1.  ELISA

  2.  PCR

  • Transgenic Animals

Transgenic animals are often defined as those animals during which a replacement or altered gene has been experimentally inserted into the genome by gene-splicing technique. Few samples of transgenic animals are rats, rabbits, pigs, sheep, cows, fish, etc. Among all other transgenic animals, the mouse is that existing transgenic animal.

The reasons behind the creation of transgenic animals are as follows: 

  •  For the production of Biological products.

  • To study the different types of diseases.

  • To study the contribution of genes in the development of the disease.

  • For testing the safety of vaccines and toxicity of drugs before they are used on humans.

To study the process of gene regulation and how they affect the normal functioning of the body and its development.

  • Applications in Aquaculture

Biotechnology applications help in the improvement of the quality and quantity of fish. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone is introduced into the fish to reinforce breeding. This helps in improving the growth and improving their genetic characteristics. It also prevents a number of diseases.

  • Production of Antibiotics

Biotechnology helps with the production of vaccines, antibiotics, and artificial hormones, using plants. Genes with the characteristics that are desired are introduced into the plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Edible vaccines are cost-effective, are often easily stored and administered within the body. These are wont to cure diseases like measles, hepatitis, cholera, etc.

This is all about biotechnology and its applications in different aspects of modern civilization. The use of modern techniques leads to the foundation of better food sources and medicines. Follow the applications and examples to understand their importance. 

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FAQs on Biotechnology and its Applications

1. What is ELISA?

Its complete form is Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent  Assay. This method captures a target antigen in samples by using a specific antibody. With a substrate, an enzyme reaction can detect the target molecule.

2. What are the different domains of biotechnology?

According to the experts of this domain, biotechnology has different domains. These domains can be broadly divided into the following sectors.

  • Human

  • Environmental

  • Industrial

  • Animal

  • Plant

These segments consider the different applications of biotechnology in different aspects. All these applications focus on developing these segments to make a better world for us and to protect the balance of the ecosystem.

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