Bacterial Diseases in Humans

Human Bacterial Diseases

Bacteria are found almost everywhere. In the extreme and most favorable conditions, bacterial growth is a must everywhere. We are surrounded by bacteria. In fact, bacteria are found even inside the human body, on our skin, in our hairs and all other surfaces. Bacteria inside our gut or stomach are good bacteria and we must have them to lead a healthy life. The others on our skin and surfaces are mostly harmless and their growth does not affect our health. But some strains of bacteria are harmful to us and cause various infections and even diseases.


In olden times, even the most common bacterial infections would prove to be fatal to humans. Bacterial infections which can now easily be treated, were once deadly and threatened people worldwide. Development of vaccines and antibiotics was a major breakthrough in the field of medicines. Although bacterial strains have evolved and become antibiotic resistant, yet most of them can be prevented and cured.


Bacteria cause infection by secreting toxins inside the body. They also excrete toxins that cause diseases or are even capable of producing toxins internally in the body. There are numerous kinds of bacteria that are harmful and cause infection or diseases when humans come in contact with them.


List of Bacterial Diseases in Humans

Human Bacterial Diseases

Bacteria Responsible

Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Diphtheria

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Cholera

Vibrio cholerae

Leprosy

Mycobacterium leprae

Pertussis

Bordetella pertussis

Tetanus

Clostridium tetani

Plague

Yersinia pestis

Gonorrhea

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Syphilis

Treponema pallidum

Salmonellosis

Salmonella enteritis

Botulism

Clostridium botulinum

Pseudomonas infection

Pseudomonas aeruginosa


Causes of Bacterial Diseases

Bacterial infection can occur in various ways. Many sources may lead to contact with harmful strains of bacteria causing serious diseases. Some of the causes are as follows:

  • The most common and easy way to get infected by bacterial infection is by direct or indirect contact. This may be person to person contact in which the disease spread by coming in contact with the infectious person. It happens if the infected person touches, sneezes, or coughs. Infection occurs even by sharing things like razors, clothes, etc. with the infected person or by coming in contact with the body fluids of the infected person.

  • Sexual contact with the infected person is another cause of the spread of disease.

  • Animal to person contact wherein, infected animals or pets bite or scratch. Animal or pet wastes should always be handled carefully because they may also cause bacterial infections.

  • From mother to child during pregnancy - Although not all germs can cross the placental barrier in pregnant women some infectious germs may cause this barrier to cause the spread of disease.

  • Bacterial infections may also spread by indirect contact when disease-causing bacteria are picked up by a healthy person from the surroundings.

  • Insects and mosquitoes also carry bacteria and transfer them while biting a healthy uninfected person.

  • By eating contaminated food and water. Bacteria grow easily on food and most of the time, they are the reason for food spoilage. Contaminated water bodies are also laden with harmful disease-causing bacteria. Consuming contaminated food or water can, therefore, cause serious bacterial diseases.


Symptoms of Bacterial Diseases

  • Painful or frequent urination or passing blood while urinating.

  • Diarrhea.

  • Flu Symptoms include fever, cold, sore throat, headache, body pain, cough, etc.

  • Nausea and Vomiting.

  • Neck Stiffness.

  • Rashes, Lesions, etc.

  • Irritability.

  • Weakness.


Risk Factors Involved

While bacteria can infect any healthy person, it is more likely to occur if the person has suppressed immunity or a weak immune system. It may also occur if:

  • The person is taking medications that suppress immunity or steroids or has been through a surgery or any other medical procedure recently.

  • A person already suffering from infectious diseases.

  • Infants and children who have weak immunity or older people.

  • Malnourished individuals.

  • Genetic factors.

  • A person is suffering from immunodeficiency disorders.


Prevention of Bacterial Infections

Although it is not possible to completely stop bacteria from infecting humans, certain measures may help to decrease the risk of infection. These include the following:

  • Washing hands frequently with soap.

  • Sanitizing hands in public places at regular intervals.

  • Getting vaccinated on proper schedules.

  • Staying away from public places when ill.

  • Having protected sexual intercourse.

  • Not sharing personal belongings like toothbrush, razors, needles, comb, drinking glasses, utensils, etc.

  • Consuming fresh and hygienically prepared food.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the Common Causes of Bacterial Infections?

Ans. Bacterial infection can occur in various ways. Many sources may lead to contact with harmful strains of bacteria causing serious diseases. Some of the causes are as follows:

  • By person to person contact.

  • Animal to person contact wherein, infected animals or pets bite or scratch. Animal or pet wastes should always be handled carefully because they may also cause bacterial infections.

  • From mother to child during pregnancy - Although not all germs can cross the placental barrier in pregnant women some infectious germs may cause this barrier to cause the spread of disease.

  • Bacterial infections may also spread by indirect contact when disease-causing bacteria are picked up by a healthy person from the surroundings.

  • Insects and mosquitoes also carry bacteria and transfer them while biting a healthy uninfected person.

  • By eating contaminated food and water.

2. What are the Symptoms of Bacterial Infections?

Ans.

  • Painful or frequent urination or passing blood while urinating.

  • Diarrhea.

  • Flu symptoms include fever, cold, sore throat, headache, body pain, cough, etc.

  • Nausea and vomiting.

  • Neck stiffness.

  • Rashes, lesions, etc.

  • Irritability.

  • Weakness.

3. How to Prevent Bacterial Infections?

Ans. Although it is not possible to completely stop bacteria from infecting humans, certain measures may help to decrease the risk of infection. These include the following:

  • Washing hands frequently with soap.

  • Sanitizing hands in public places at regular intervals.

  • Getting vaccinated on proper schedules.

  • Staying away from public places when ill.

  • Having protected sexual intercourse.

  • Not sharing personal belongings like toothbrush, razors, needles, comb, drinking glasses, utensils, etc.

  • Consuming fresh and hygienically prepared food.