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Power Sharing Class 10 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 1 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 19th Feb 2024
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Exam Focused Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Power Sharing - Political Science (Civics) Chapter 1

Class 10 Social Science Political Science Chapter 1 is about power-sharing. Most of the democracies have a system of sharing power among its organs. Judiciary, legislature and executive have got their defined powers which they exercise in their own jurisdiction. CBSE Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 notes will give you an insight as to how the system of power-sharing works. CBSE Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 notes will help us understand how each organ is accountable to each other while they are still functioning in a different jurisdiction. The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 is already available in PDF form for students to refer for this chapter.

Topics Covered in Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing 

 Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing includes the following topics:

  • Story of Belgium

  • Story of Sri Lanka

  • Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka

  • Accommodation in Belgium

  • Why is Power Sharing Important?

  • Forms of Power Sharing

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Topics Covered in Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing

Introduction to Power Sharing:

  • Explanation of power sharing as the distribution of power among different organs of the government.

  • Importance of power sharing in reducing conflicts and promoting harmony in society.

Power Sharing in Belgium:

  • Case study of power sharing in Belgium, a country with a diverse linguistic and cultural population.

  • Examination of the power-sharing arrangements between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities.

Power Sharing in Sri Lanka:

  • Case study of power sharing in Sri Lanka, a country with a diverse ethnic and linguistic population.

  • Discussion of the tensions between the Sinhala-speaking majority and Tamil-speaking minority, leading to conflicts and civil war.

Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka became an independent country in 1948. The Sinhala leaders sought to secure dominance over the government through their majority.

  • An Act was passed in 1956 to recognize Sinhala as the sole official language of the country.

  • In addition, the government used preferential policies to favor Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs. The Sri Lankan Tamils began to feel alienated as a result of the government's actions.

  • A slew of political organizations had emerged by the 1980s, calling for an independent Tamil Eelam (state) in the country's east and north.

  • The mutual distrust between the two communities escalated into widespread conflict. It rapidly devolved into civil war.

Accommodation in Belgium

The government of Belgium handled the community difference very well. Belgian leaders amended their constitution four times between 1970 and 1993, resulting in a new model for government administration. The Belgian model includes the following elements:

  • According to the Constitution, the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers in the Central Government must be equal. Some special laws necessitate the approval of most of the members from each linguistic group. As a result, no single community can make decisions unilaterally.

  • The state governments are independent of the Central Government.

  • Brussels has a separate government with equal representation for both communities.

  • Community government is the third type of government, in addition to the central and state governments, that is elected by members of a particular language-speaking group. This government has authority over cultural, educational, and language-related issues.

Why is Power Sharing Desirable?

Power-sharing is beneficial because it reduces the likelihood of conflict between social groups. Another reason is that a democratic rule implies sharing power with those who are affected by it and who must live with its consequences. People have the right to be consulted about how they will be governed.

Forms of Power Sharing

  • Horizontal power sharing: Distribution of power among the three organs of the government - Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.

  • Vertical power sharing: Distribution of power among different levels of government, such as central, state and local governments.

Benefits of Power Sharing:

  • Discussion of the prudential and moral reasons for power sharing in democratic systems.

  • Prudential reasons include reducing conflicts and maintaining social harmony, while moral reasons involve upholding democratic values and ensuring citizen participation.

Power Sharing and Democracy:

  • Exploration of how power sharing is a fundamental aspect of democratic governance.

  • Analysis of the role of citizens in critiquing government decisions and influencing policy-making.

Important Question and Answers

1. What do you mean by a system of ‘checks and balances?

Ans: When power is distributed horizontally, it is shared among the various components of government, such as the executive, legislature, and judiciary. Each organ validates the other organs. As a result, there seems to be a balance of power among various institutions. This is known as a 'checks and balances system. It ensures that none of the organs have unrestricted power.

2. What is majoritarianism?

Ans: Majoritarianism is the belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whatever way it deems appropriate, regardless of the wishes and needs of the minority.

3. How is power-sharing the true spirit of democracy?

Ans: Power-sharing embodies the spirit of democracy because it is one of the fundamental principles underlying the concept of democratic rule.

  • In a democracy, citizens have the right to be consulted on how they should be governed, and all citizens generally have the same political and legal rights.

  • Each individual and community has a voice in governance through their elected representatives.

  • Power-sharing ensures accommodation while also preventing any majority group from abusing its authority.

  • It strengthens the minority's voice and makes them feel as wanted as any other majority group in the country. 

4. What do you mean by a vertical division of power?

Ans: A vertical division of power refers to the sharing of power between different levels of government, such as the Central and State governments. Power is divided between a higher and lower level of government in this system.

5. Which community supremacy was witnessed in post-independence Sri Lanka?

Ans: The dominant Sinhala community and the immigrant population of Sri Lanka experienced supremacy after the country's independence in 1948. Through government favors, the Sinhalese were able to influence the government and spread their language and culture while demonizing the Tamil language and culture. They reduced government employment and higher education opportunities for Tamils.

6. State the three consequences of the majoritarian policies adopted by the post-independence Sri Lankan government.

Ans: Three consequences of the majoritarian policies adopted by the Sri Lankan Government are:

  • The Buddhist Sinhala leaders were insensitive to Sri Lankan Tamils' culture and language, leaving them feeling neglected and upset. They felt that the government was practicing religious discrimination.

  • Tamils experienced job and educational discrimination. They believed that the constitution denied them equal rights and opportunities, which strained the relationship between the two communities even further.

  • Sri Lankan Tamils formed political parties and began campaigns for equal rights, language recognition, and regional autonomy.

7. What are the principles of a good democracy?


  • One fundamental principle of democracy is that all political power lies with the people. The power of any government should not be concentrated in the hands of a single person or group of people.

  • There must be equal respect for all groups, and everyone should be able to have a say in public policy.

  • The government in power should prioritize the fulfillment of the people's rights and demands, and they should not act arbitrarily.

Chapter 1 Power Sharing - Free PDF

Class 10 SST Civics Chapter 1 - Power Sharing is available for the students in PDF form so that you can access it easily. Download the Class 10 Social Science Political Science Chapter 1 in PDF form and study anywhere on your device. This chapter discusses one of the fundamentals of the Indian political system. It is essential from the viewpoint of board examination. Students will score higher by referring to CBSE Solutions for Class 10 SST Civics Chapter 1 to learn the answering pattern for the chapter.

Class 10th Political Science Chapter 1

CBSE notes Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 starts with the story of Belgium and Sri Lanka. Both stories teach us how power-sharing takes place in two different countries and how it affects them.

Story of Belgium and Sri Lanka

Belgium was a European country 59% of people were Dutch-speaking while 40% were french-speaking and the remaining 1% were's German in the 1950s and 1960s. Although the French were 40% of the population they were richer than the rest of the population and had control of the economy. This created a lot of tension and French domination in Belgium.

Sri Lanka is an island country near India. The major social groups in Sri Lanka after 1948 were Sinhala speakers which were 74% and the Tamil speakers 18%. Tamil speakers were also divided into Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils. The rest were other minor groups of the population.

The State Governments Were Not Under the Central Government.

Brussels, the capital of Belgium had a different government which also had equal representation of both linguistic groups.

Apart from this, they had a community government which decided on all the matters regarding culture education and language-related issues.

Between Different Organs of the Government

The power division of distribution is horizontal where different organs of the government at the same level exercise different powers in their jurisdiction. This is easily seen in Indian democracy the legislature judiciary and executive function on the same level and yet have different jurisdictions.

Between Different Levels of Government

This refers to the system where the power is distributed among various levels of government such as the central and provincial government. This system is also known as federalism. India is a prime example of the federal system of government. In certain matters, the power-sharing is so exclusive that certain subjects are only exclusive to the union government or the state government.

Between Different Social Groups

In this, various weak social groups are represented in the legislatures or administration through various reservations. This gives the various social groups a voice and power which might not have been given in other types of government.

Between Different Political Groups

There are various political groups in the society like political parties, pressure groups and other Public Interest groups which have a significant influence over the decision making and law-making process in a democracy. Sometimes, political parties form an alliance and participate in direct power-sharing when they form a coalition government.

Advantages of Choosing Vedantu's Revision Notes for Class 10 Political Science

Vedantu's revision notes for Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 1, Power Sharing, provide several advantages. First, they are comprehensive, covering all the essential topics and concepts in a concise manner. Second, the notes are well-organized and easy to understand, making revision efficient and effective. Additionally, Vedantu's revision notes are created by experienced educators, ensuring high-quality content. Moreover, the notes offer clarity and a quick overview of the chapter, helping students grasp key points quickly. Overall, choosing Vedantu's revision notes enhances understanding, retention, and exam preparation for Class 10 Political Science.

Vedantu's Contribution:

  • Mention of Vedantu as a platform providing resources and solutions to help students understand power sharing concepts effectively.

  • The chapter aims to familiarize students with the importance of power sharing in democratic systems and its practical applications in different countries. It encourages students to think critically about the role of power sharing in maintaining a balanced and inclusive society.

CBSE Class 10 Political Science Other Chapter Notes 


In conclusion, the Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 1, Power Sharing, plays a crucial role in understanding the concept of power distribution in democratic systems. It highlights the importance of power sharing in reducing conflicts, maintaining social harmony, and upholding democratic values. Vedantu's comprehensive revision notes provide a valuable resource for students to quickly revise and comprehend the key points of the chapter. By choosing Vedantu's revision notes, students can enhance their understanding, retention, and exam preparation, ultimately empowering them to excel in their studies.

FAQs on Power Sharing Class 10 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 1 (Free PDF Download)

1. Describe How Power-Sharing is Good for Democracy.

Power sharing is good for democracy in various ways. It distributes responsibilities between various organs and levels of government as well as even political groups in the society. Power-sharing gives powers to a lot of sections in the society which otherwise might have been overlooked in case the country had another type of government than democracy. Power-sharing also ensures that various dominant groups in the society do not gain so much power that they start dominating the society's reality.

In a democracy, it is the rule of the people which is further empowered by power-sharing. Various political groups such as pressure groups, public interest groups as well as political parties which are composed of common people or active citizens exercise significant influence in the political arena. They are heard by not only the civilians of the country but also by the government and influence various laws and policies.

2. Describe the Result of Communal Tensions in the Case of both Sri Lanka and Belgium.

The communal tensions and Sri Lanka were caused by various laws and policies which were discriminating the Tamils against Sinhalese people. The laws favoured the Sinhalese in various ways and led to a situation where the Tamils felt ignored by the government. Moreover the various protests by Tamil groups were not addressed properly by the government and led to further issues. The government did not concede to the demands of the Tamils. This action by the government resulted in various political groups protesting on the streets and ultimately caused Civil war in Sri Lanka.

In the Belgium situation, the Belgian people solved their communal issues by both the communities coming halfway and sharing power. Both the communities agreed on having an equal number of ministers in the central government. Selected laws were required to have a majority from both the communities to pass in the parliament. Moreover, the State Government and the Central Government were kept separate. To solve communal issues they agreed on a separate communal government which acted as a third Government and separate for each community. Apart from this the capital of Belgium i.e Brussels had a separate government where both the communities were represented equally.

For more questions on this chapter refer to CBSE Solutions for Class 10 SST Civics Chapter 1 on our platform. The NCERT solutions can be found on NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 on our website or app which will guide you through your board exams.

3. What is power-sharing according to Chapter 1 of Class 10 Political Science?

In a democratic country, the power is not in the hands of an individual. The power is shared in different bodies such as the legislature, executive, and judiciary. It is an important feature of democracy. In Class 10, Political Science Chapter 1 students will study power-sharing. All information is given in detail for a proper understanding of power-sharing. Students will also study different forms of power-sharing in Chapter 1 to understand the main concepts.

4. Why is power-sharing important in a democracy?

Power-sharing is important because it reduces conflicts among different groups. It reduces the chances of violence in the country. In India, people of different castes and religions live in different parts. Therefore, political instability is common. To prevent political instability, power-sharing is important. Power-sharing is also important because it shares power between the different organs of the government and helps in smooth functioning of the government. Power sharing helps to provide efficient services to the public.  

5. What is the importance of power-sharing in a democratic country like India?

Power-sharing is an important aspect for a democratic country like India. It is needed for the smooth functioning of the government. Without power-sharing there would be conflicts in the organs of the government. India has diversity because people of different castes and religions live in India. Violence may occur anytime, therefore to prevent violence and smooth functioning of the government, power-sharing is important. Students can understand the concept of power sharing in Chapter 1 of Class 10 Social Science. 

6. How can I easily understand the concept of power-sharing in Chapter 1 of Class 10 Political Science?

Students find it difficult to understand Political Science. Power-sharing is the first chapter in Class 10 Political Science. Students can easily understand the concept of power-sharing in Class 10 from Vedantu's online notes for Class 10. Students can download Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Notes from Vedantu free of cost and can prepare for their exams. All notes are given in brief and simple language that can help students to understand their doubts.

7. Why is Vedantu good for downloading Chapter 1 of Class 10 Social Science Political Science notes?

It is good for students of Class 10 to download Social Science Political Science Chapter 1 notes from Vedantu because it is an excellent source of information for the students. It is an excellent guide for students to understand the concepts given in Chapter 1. Students can find easy-to-understand notes on Vedantu app and website. Students can find excellent notes at Vedantu for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 that can help them to prepare well for the exams.