CBSE Class 9 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 4 Notes - Working of Institutions

Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 4 - PDF Download

Working of Institutions is the chapter which explains the importance of rules and procedures which regulate a leader’s rule in a democratic government. These rules and regulations are projected by and enforced by institutions found within a government. This chapter’s approach to political science entails how institutions function in India and how they affect major decisions influencing the State’s ruling. In addition to the before-mentioned, this chapter majorly concerns itself with 3 institution’s which are known as the state’s agencies: (i) The legislature (ii) The judiciary (iii) The executive branch of the government. To understand the working of institutions, refer to the working of the institution’s class 9 notes. 

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CBSE Class 9 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 4 Notes - Working of Institutions part-1

Class 9 Political Science Chapter 4 - Working of Institutions

Working of Institutions and Policies

The working of the three mentioned institutions is necessary for a state to function in its optimal condition. India needs the implementation of laws and their enforcement, for which the institutions are used to refer to and make major policy decisions. This is also how enforcement of a government order takes place. To make it easier to understand how they function, notes on working of institutions will contain the importance of government orders and the decision-makers who help establish such government orders. 


Government Orders

August 13, 1990, is when the court of India and the legislative assembly unanimously decided to issue an order called the Office Memorandum, containing legislation and statutes on job reservation benefits for the SEBC (Socially and Educationally Backward Classes). The statutes further state that other than SC and ST, 27% of job reservation benefits are guaranteed to people who fit the SEBC category. It works as a quota only for those individuals who are less privileged. 


Decision Makers of India

Questions on the decision-makers behind the order called the Office Memorandum is what will reveal to students how such policies were brought about in the first place. What was their need? Were they efficient as laws? Did people adhere to them willingly? These are questions which serve to portray the politics which preceded the working of political institutions in India. Various positions in the Indian government would be involved in such decisions. Keeping that in mind, the major functionaries without whom such acts cannot be established are: 

  1. The highest formal position of authority in the Indian government: the president of India.

  2. The decision-maker of Union of Cabinets and the head of the government of India: The prime minister. 

  3. The parliament and its two houses, the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.

  4. The prime minister, who is a major stakeholder in the passing of laws, needs the support of the upper house (the Lok Sabha) to pass such Memorandums. 


The Government of India

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The Legislative Body of India


The Role of Political Institutions

The working of political institutions in India is equivalent to the machinery that helps the government of India function. Without such institutions, a democratic government is going to find it hard to perfectly reflect the interests of its citizens. So one must ask themselves the pertinent question, What is the role of institutions?

  1. Institutions facilitate meetings discussing the laws that are and should be/ should not be binding in India. 

  2. Institutions involve deliberate complications & delays to include a wider audience that is available for consultation. 

  3. Institutions are established to give the correct legislative powers the chance to properly discuss the potential extent to which law or order could affect society. 


The Parliament 

It is one of the most important institutions erected to ensure that centralization of the government’s power is held to a minimum. That way, a democratic government would function true to its name. Moreover, an order that is made by the government usually needs the approval of the Parliament. It is the Parliament that reviews reports on potential orders that need to be passed by the government.


Role of the Parliament

The following list reflects the powers of the Parliament and the reason why it is the most significant political institution in India.

  1. Parliament is the final authority that makes laws in any country.

  2. Every order that needs to be passed by the government needs the support of the two houses of the Parliament, or at least the Lok Sabha.

  3. The Parliament has total control over the funds of the Government and acts as a limiter to the access to monies the government has. 

  4. It influences public policy and is the highest forum available for the hearing and cognizing of issues that the public has.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Which House is more important in the Parliament?

Both the houses (Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha), have a major influence on governmental actions, without them existing the Parliament would not be able to come to a conclusive decision. The two houses allow the Parliament to discuss a subject matter in an open forum with two sides. However, the Lok Sabha can exercise supreme power on most matters. 


The two houses have equal power in terms of voicing what pertinent issues they think should be addressed. However, when the two houses conduct meetings between them, it is the Lok Sabha which plays the deciding factor. 

2. What is the role of the executive branch of the government?

The role of the executive branch is essentially divided between two types: I. the political executive and II. the permanent executive. Political executives are those elected by the people and are established as such for a specific period of time. E.g. the prime minister. Permanent executives are those who are elected for a longer duration of time, they are also known as civil services. Even after the ruling party loses or changes, civil servants remain in office. 

This question will be better answered if one reviews the role of the government’s executive powers by referring to the working of institutions class 9 NCERT notes.

3. What is the working of an institution?

In a democracy, people choose their representatives. The representatives then form the government to govern the state and its citizens. To ensure that democracy functions effectively and for the welfare of all, our Constitution has provisions of various independent institutions. The chapter teaches you how these institutions work, their importance and their relevance. Some of these institutions are the Parliament, the Supreme Court and the Election Commission. All the institutions are independent and work together to further democracy and promote democratic values.

4. What are institutions in Class 9 Political Science Chapter 4?

The Institutions mentioned in Class 9 Political Science Chapter 4 are:

  • The Parliament

  • The Executive

  • Prime Minister and the Council

  • President

  • The Judiciary

These institutions are independent of each other so that they can perform their functions without any hindrance from other Institutions. They have their respective jurisdictions and exercise their discretion. The institutions have different roles that are conferred on them by the Constitution. Their independence ensures that they can function properly without any fear of interference.

5. What do you understand about the term “Council of Ministers”?

After the President appoints the Prime Minister, he or she appoints other ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. These Ministers head various important departments and ministries. The Council of Ministers is the group of all such ministers. The Prime Minister is the chairperson of the council. The council is the part of the executive that administers the way the government works. The council consists of cabinet ministers and ministers of state. The number of council members varies between 60 to 80. To know more students can refer to the vedantu app.

6. Who has the authority to make laws in a democracy?

The authority to make laws is bestowed upon the Parliament by the constitution. In a democracy, regular elections are held. The citizens who are above 18 years of age are eligible to vote. The candidate who has the maximum votes is chosen as their representative. All the representatives become members of the Parliament. The Parliament also has members that are nominated by the President. When a bill is introduced in Parliament, it is voted upon. The bill is forwarded to the President only after it is passed by the Parliament. The President's stamp is what makes a bill law.

7. What is the role of the judiciary?

Judiciary is an important pillar of democracy. It ensures that the democratic form of government is not converted into an authoritarian form. It protects the basic fundamental rights of the citizens. It protects citizens from the arbitrary laws of the government. It settles disputes between individuals, governments and between citizens and government. It oversees and supervises the functioning of all the courts in the country. It is the highest court of appeal. Its independence ensures that it can perform its functions without interference by any other organ of democracy. To study more and revise the topics students can download the Class 9 social science notes free of cost from the vedantu website.

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