Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 4 - PDF Download
Working of Institutions is the chapter which explains the importance of rules and procedures which regulate a leader’s rule in a democratic government. These rules and regulations are projected by and enforced by institutions found within a government. This chapter’s approach to political science entails how institutions function in India and how they affect major decisions influencing the State’s ruling. In addition to the before-mentioned, this chapter majorly concerns itself with 3 institution’s which are known as the state’s agencies: (i) The legislature (ii) The judiciary (iii) The executive branch of the government. To understand the working of institutions, refer to the working of the institution’s class 9 notes.
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How is Major Policy Decision being Taken?
On August 13, 1990, an Order was issued by the Government of India. The order concluded the Socially & Educationally Backward Classes (SEBC) being the third category for 27% reservation other than theSC and ST community. People belonging to backward classes only were eligible for this quota.
The Decision Makers
The major functionaries in India, that decide the above memorandum involves the following points:
The highest formal authority in India is President, who is the head of the state.
The head of the government who takes most of the decisions in the Cabinet meetings is the Prime Minister.
The President & two Houses, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha constitute the Parliament. To pass a memorandum, the Prime Minister must have support of a majority of Lok Sabha members.
In India, passing of Office Memorandum became an issue of hot debate. Some felt that it would deny equality of opportunity to those people who did not belong to backward communities whereas others rooted that it will give a fair opportunity to those communities in government employment. In 1992, Supreme Court resolved this case by hearing ‘Indira Sawhney & others Vs Union of India case’. The order was then declared valid by the court and thus the policy was followed thereafter.
Need for Political Institutions
Institutions are various arrangements which are made in modern democracies. Institutions also perform functions assigned to them to make the democracy work fairly.
The Civil Servants work with the ministers and the cabinet, in order to take steps to implement the ministers’ decisions.
Supreme Court is institution where disputes b/w citizens & the government are finally settled.
Institutions when involve meetings, and the committees associated with it often lead to delays and complications. But these delays are also very useful as they provide an opportunity for consulting more people. Just like good decisions cannot be taken quickly, bad decisions are also not rushed into.
An assembly of elected representatives is referred as Parliament which is the supreme political authority representing the people. Parliamentary discussions also influence the decision of the government and bring pressure to act. No decision can then be implemented without the favour of the parliament.
Parliament exercises political authority by representing people as:
Why Do We Need a Parliament
For making laws in any country, parliament is responsible.
Support of Parliament is an ultimatum for the government to take any decision.
Government’s money also is controlled by the parliament
It is called the supreme forum of argument on public issues and national policy in any country.
In India, Parliament consists of two Chambers or Two Houses of Parliament:
House of the People (Lok Sabha): It is directly elected by people and has the power in order to represent on behalf of the people.
Council of States (Rajya Sabha): Elected indirectly in order to look after the interests of different states, regions or federal units.
The President is not a member of any of these House . All the laws made in the Houses need assent of the President to become an Act.
However the Indian Constitution does not allow the Rajya Sabha any superior powers but the Lok Sabha holds power in some of the matters like:
Both Houses need to pass any ordinary law. In case of difference between the two Houses, a joint session with members of both the Houses together takes the final decision. Being more populous, the view of Lok Sabha generally prevails.
Powers in money matters are mainly exercised by Lok Sabha.
Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers and takes daily decisions at different government levels. They take care of the execution of government policies.
In a democratic country, there are two categories of executives:
Political executive: Constitutes of political leader elected by the people for a specific period who take big decisions.
Permanent executive: People working in the civil services i.e. civil servants remain in office even when the ruling party changes and are permanently chosen. They work under political executives and support them in administration.
The minister more powerful than the civil servant? Why?
As will of people is supreme in a democracy, the elected representative of the people i.e. minister is empowered to exercise the will of the people on their behalf. Minister addresses people for any consequences of his/her decision. This is why ministers take the advice of experts on all technical matters and then take the final decision. The President also appoints the Prime Minister on the basis of the following procedure:
Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
The majority party's leader controlls majority in the Lok Sabha and is appointed by the President, as the Prime Minister of the country.
In case of no single majority, the President then appoints the person most likely to secure majority support.
The Prime Minister continues in power so long as he is the leader of the majority party or coalition.
The Prime Minister can then advises the President on the appointment of other ministers from the majority party or the coalition that has the majority in the Lok Sabha: The Prime Minister is thus free to choose ministers if they are members of Parliament.
A minister who is not a member of Parliament also has to get elected to one of the Houses of Parliament within 6 months of appointment as minister.
The Council of Ministers includes all the Ministers (60 to 80) of different ranks as given below:
Cabinet Ministers: They are regarded as top-level leaders of either the ruling party or the parties along with the in charge of the major ministries, inner ring of the Council of Ministers, comprises of about 25 ministers.
Ministers of State/junior minister: assigned to assist various cabinet ministers and the ministers of state with independent charge.
Most of the decisions in Parliamentary democracy are taken in Cabinet meetings. Every ministry has secretaries i.e. civil servants who provide important background information to the ministers to take decisions. The Cabinet Secretariat also assists the Cabinet.
The powers of Prime Minister are given as follows:
Powers of the Prime Minister
He is the head of the government and chairs cabinet meetings
He keeeps an eye and Coordinates the work of all departments.
In case of any disagreement b/w departments, his decision is final.
Exercises general supervision of all ministries.
Leader of all ministers.
He is responsible for Distributing the work to the respective ministers.
Has the power to dismiss ministers.
The entire ministry will quit when the Prime Minister quits or resigns.
The President is called the head of the State who supervises complete operation of all the political institutions in India, such that they function in accord to attain the aim of the State.
The President is not elected directly by the people but he/she has to get a majority of votes from Members of Parliament (MPs) and the Members of the Legislative Assemblies (MLAs) to win the election.
In the name of the President- Every government activity take place.
Laws and key policy resolutions of the government are issued.
All the major appointments like that of the Chief Justice of India, Judges of the Supreme Court & the High Courts of the states, the Governors of any state, the Election Commissioners or Ambassadors to other countries, etc are made.
All international treaties & agreements are done in his/her name.
The President is also the commander in chief of defence forces of India.
The Council of Ministers advises the President to exercise these powers. The President can appoint the Prime Minister by own will.
The Indian judiciary consists of the courts at different levels in a country put together:
Supreme Court for entire nation
High Courts in states
An integrated judiciary in India gives the Supreme Court control of judicial administration in the country. The other courts other than this are bound by its decisions.
between citizens of the country
between citizens and government
between two or more state governments
between the union and state-level governments
The Judiciary of india is not under the control of the legislature or the executive in any manner. The judges do not act as per the government or the party in power.
The President takes advice from the Prime Minister consults with Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who appoints judges of the Supreme Court. Such a judge cannot be removed unless an impeachment motion is passed separately by two-thirds members of the two Houses of the Parliament.
Powers of Judiciary
The power to interpret the Constitution of the country lies on the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
The constitutional validity of any legislation or action of the executive can be determined by them through judicial review.
According to the Supreme Court of India, the basic principles of the Constitution cannot be changed by Parliament.
Indian judiciary is the guardian of the Fundamental Rights. According to public interest litigation, if the public interest is hurt by the actions of the government, then the public can approach the judiciary.
Class 9 Political Science Chapter 4 - Working of Institutions
Working of Institutions and Policies
The working of the three mentioned institutions is necessary for a state to function in its optimal condition. India needs the implementation of laws and their enforcement, for which the institutions are used to refer to and make major policy decisions. This is also how enforcement of a government order takes place. To make it easier to understand how they function, notes on working of institutions will contain the importance of government orders and the decision-makers who help establish such government orders.
August 13, 1990, is when the court of India and the legislative assembly unanimously decided to issue an order called the Office Memorandum, containing legislation and statutes on job reservation benefits for the SEBC (Socially and Educationally Backward Classes). The statutes further state that other than SC and ST, 27% of job reservation benefits are guaranteed to people who fit the SEBC category. It works as a quota only for those individuals who are less privileged.
Decision Makers of India
Questions on the decision-makers behind the order called the Office Memorandum is what will reveal to students how such policies were brought about in the first place. What was their need? Were they efficient as laws? Did people adhere to them willingly? These are questions which serve to portray the politics which preceded the working of political institutions in India. Various positions in the Indian government would be involved in such decisions. Keeping that in mind, the major functionaries without whom such acts cannot be established are:
The highest formal position of authority in the Indian government: the president of India.
The decision-maker of Union of Cabinets and the head of the government of India: The prime minister.
The parliament and its two houses, the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.
The prime minister, who is a major stakeholder in the passing of laws, needs the support of the upper house (the Lok Sabha) to pass such Memorandums.
The Government of India
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The Legislative Body of India
The Role of Political Institutions
The working of political institutions in India is equivalent to the machinery that helps the government of India function. Without such institutions, a democratic government is going to find it hard to perfectly reflect the interests of its citizens. So one must ask themselves the pertinent question, What is the role of institutions?
Institutions facilitate meetings discussing the laws that are and should be/ should not be binding in India.
Institutions involve deliberate complications & delays to include a wider audience that is available for consultation.
Institutions are established to give the correct legislative powers the chance to properly discuss the potential extent to which law or order could affect society.
It is one of the most important institutions erected to ensure that centralization of the government’s power is held to a minimum. That way, a democratic government would function true to its name. Moreover, an order that is made by the government usually needs the approval of the Parliament. It is the Parliament that reviews reports on potential orders that need to be passed by the government.
Role of the Parliament
The following list reflects the powers of the Parliament and the reason why it is the most significant political institution in India.
Parliament is the final authority that makes laws in any country.
Every order that needs to be passed by the government needs the support of the two houses of the Parliament, or at least the Lok Sabha.
The Parliament has total control over the funds of the Government and acts as a limiter to the access to monies the government has.
It influences public policy and is the highest forum available for the hearing and cognizing of issues that the public has.
FAQs on Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 4 [Free PDF Download]
1. Which House is more important in the Parliament?
Both the houses (Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha), have a major influence on governmental actions, without them existing the Parliament would not be able to come to a conclusive decision. The two houses allow the Parliament to discuss a subject matter in an open forum with two sides. However, the Lok Sabha can exercise supreme power on most matters.
The two houses have equal power in terms of voicing what pertinent issues they think should be addressed. However, when the two houses conduct meetings between them, it is the Lok Sabha which plays the deciding factor.
2. What is the role of the executive branch of the government?
The role of the executive branch is essentially divided between two types: I. the political executive and II. the permanent executive. Political executives are those elected by the people and are established as such for a specific period of time. E.g. the prime minister. Permanent executives are those who are elected for a longer duration of time, they are also known as civil services. Even after the ruling party loses or changes, civil servants remain in office.
This question will be better answered if one reviews the role of the government’s executive powers by referring to the working of institutions class 9 NCERT notes.
3. What is the working of an institution?
In a democracy, people choose their representatives. The representatives then form the government to govern the state and its citizens. To ensure that democracy functions effectively and for the welfare of all, our Constitution has provisions of various independent institutions. The chapter teaches you how these institutions work, their importance and their relevance. Some of these institutions are the Parliament, the Supreme Court and the Election Commission. All the institutions are independent and work together to further democracy and promote democratic values.
4. What are institutions in Class 9 Political Science Chapter 4?
The Institutions mentioned in Class 9 Political Science Chapter 4 are:
Prime Minister and the Council
These institutions are independent of each other so that they can perform their functions without any hindrance from other Institutions. They have their respective jurisdictions and exercise their discretion. The institutions have different roles that are conferred on them by the Constitution. Their independence ensures that they can function properly without any fear of interference.
5. What do you understand about the term “Council of Ministers”?
After the President appoints the Prime Minister, he or she appoints other ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. These Ministers head various important departments and ministries. The Council of Ministers is the group of all such ministers. The Prime Minister is the chairperson of the council. The council is the part of the executive that administers the way the government works. The council consists of cabinet ministers and ministers of state. The number of council members varies between 60 to 80. To know more students can refer to the vedantu app.
6. Who has the authority to make laws in a democracy?
The authority to make laws is bestowed upon the Parliament by the constitution. In a democracy, regular elections are held. The citizens who are above 18 years of age are eligible to vote. The candidate who has the maximum votes is chosen as their representative. All the representatives become members of the Parliament. The Parliament also has members that are nominated by the President. When a bill is introduced in Parliament, it is voted upon. The bill is forwarded to the President only after it is passed by the Parliament. The President's stamp is what makes a bill law.
7. What is the role of the judiciary?
Judiciary is an important pillar of democracy. It ensures that the democratic form of government is not converted into an authoritarian form. It protects the basic fundamental rights of the citizens. It protects citizens from the arbitrary laws of the government. It settles disputes between individuals, governments and between citizens and government. It oversees and supervises the functioning of all the courts in the country. It is the highest court of appeal. Its independence ensures that it can perform its functions without interference by any other organ of democracy. To study more and revise the topics students can download the Class 9 social science notes free of cost from the vedantu website.