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Development Class 10 Notes CBSE Economics Chapter 1 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 16th May 2024
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Development Class 10 Notes Economics Chapter 1 - PDF Download

In Class 10 SST Economics Chapter 1, we’ll study the basic concept of development like  What development is? Is it the same for everyone? How do we compare development? How to measure it? What does sustainable development mean? and many other things. In higher classes, we study this concept very deeply because it is very important for the economy to develop continuously. Here, we’ll be covering the various topics of CBSE Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1, Development.

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Development Class 10 Notes CBSE Economics Chapter 1 (Free PDF Download)
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Access Class 10 Social Science (Economics) Chapter 1- Development Notes

1. Introduction

  • Developmental goals of any particular idea vary from person to person. 

  • Apart from personal development, we should definitely think of a country's development.

  • Development is defined as the people’s economic growth, along with the growth of their basic needs like education, health, lifestyle, etc.

  • The main aim of development is to update as per the demand of time.

  • For example: to generate electricity, a dam is constructed over a river where nearby mass is considered for construction resulting in the development of society and country.

  • It causes destruction for farmers and the lives of people living nearby.

2. Income and other goals

  • Money is considered to be the basic need of people and to fulfill their daily requirements making money or income is very important.

  • Money is required to buy materialistic things as well as freedom, security, treatment, respect to maintain a quality lifestyle.

  • Hence, developmental goals are necessary to get a better income and other things in life.

3. National Development 

  • It is defined as a country’s ability to enhance the living standards of its residents.

  • For people, belief in nations' development is different.

  • Improvement in people’s living standards, providing basic things to citizens like food, education, social service, medical aid, etc, and increase in per capita income, is referred to as National development.

4. How can you differentiate different countries or states?

  • Income is a key feature to compare countries.

  • Countries that have higher income are called developed countries and vice versa.

  • The income of a country is about the income of the citizens of that country.

  • National income: it is the sum of the total value of the country’s goods and services produced in a year. As every country has a different population rate, so National income cannot be considered to compare between different countries.

  • Per capita income: it is also called average income, defined as a country's total earnings divided by the whole population. It shows the living standard of the citizens of the country.

  • The average income of the country is the ratio of the overall income of the country to the overall population of the country.

5. Income and other criteria

  • To achieve a goal, people earn more and want respect from others, the security of their lives, and freedom.

  • If we consider per capita in the country’s development, then Goa is the most developed and Bihar is the least developed state in India.

  • Net attendance ratio: defined as the total number of children, the age group from 14 years attending the school from the total percentage of children in the same age group.

  • Literacy rate: it is the total number of people above 7 years who can write, read and understand. If the literacy rate is high, then the state is considered to be developed. Kerala has the highest literacy rate of 96.2% and Andhra Pradesh has the lowest literacy rate of 66.4%.

  • Infant mortality rate: it is the total number of children that die in one year of age as a proportion of 1000 births in a year. It shows how efficient health facilities are in any country. Kerala has the lowest infant mortality rate, that is deaths per 1000 live births and Madhya Pradesh has the highest mortality rate that is 48 per 1000 live births in India.

6. Human Development Index

  • The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) prepares this index, in which an annual report of human development is published every year.

  • The major parameters include per capita income, literacy rate, and durability of a person’s life, which measure the countries’ development.

  • Countries are marked as very high, high, medium, and low developed countries respectively.

  • Apart from infant mortality rate, literacy rate, net attendance ratio; the BMI index also plays an important role.

7. Body mass index (BMI) is measured to measure the adults who are undernourished by calculating the weight of the person (kg) divided by the square of the height. If the value is less than 18.5, the person is undernourished and if it is more than 25, then the person is highly obese.

8. Public Facilities

  • Public facilities play a major role in the development of the country.

  • These are the facilities provided by the government like schools, transportation, electricity, hospitals, residences, community halls, etc.

  • These facilities are important as we cannot purchase every major facility.

9. Sustainable Development

  • It is the development that meets all needs of today’s generation.

  • It is the development of a nation without affecting the environment.

  • To achieve sustainable development, we should use non-renewable resources such as carbon-based fuel wisely.

Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

1. Write down the features of a developed country? Name the countries having the highest and lowest per capita income in 2019 (US Dollars).


  • Any country whose literacy rate, per capita income, and service rate is high, those countries are called a developed country.

  • The per capita income of a country is a measure of its number of people’s economic output.

  • Countries with per capita income having to be $128000 per annum are called developed countries. Example – Qatar.

  • Countries with a per capita income of $800 or less are known as developing countries. Example: Central African Republic.

2. What is IMR and why is it important? Which state has a high and low infant mortality rate?


  • IMR is the total number of children that die within 1 year of age as a proportion of 1000 births in a year.

  • This shows the efficiency of health facilities in a country.

  • Madhya Pradesh has a high infant mortality rate of 48 deaths per 1000 live births and Nagaland has a low infant mortality rate of 4 deaths per 1000 live births.

3. What is India’s per capita income in 2020? Which is the richest state of India? And which state of India makes more income?


  • As per the world development indicators, India has $7680 per capita income.

  • Maharashtra is the richest state in India with a nominal GDP of 28.78 lakh crore.

  • Sikkim has the lowest GDP of 0.287 lakh crore.

  • Goa has the highest per capita income of $6698 (Rs. 4,30,081)

4. Other than income, what are the other factors that are important for our lives?

Ans: Important factors for our lives are:

  • Safe environment for women at their workplace.

  • Freedom, respect, treatment, and security.

  • Pollution-free environment.

  • Political rights

5. What do you mean by development? Write down the aspect of development.

Ans: Development is the improvement of citizens' lives in terms of income, lifestyle, etc.

Major aspects of development are:

  • Development for anyone can be destructive for others.

  • Different people have different goals in life.

6. Why is average income an essential criterion for development?


Average income is the basic criteria because it shows the earning of a person, it also gives a clear idea about the standard of living. The average income will be less if the number of people who are not working is less.

7. Which neighboring country of India has better performance in terms of Human development?


  • Sri Lanka performed better in terms of human development than India.

  • It’s per capita income is $4390, 91% literacy rate, 93 HDI rank, 74 life expectancy at birth which is better than India and other neighboring countries that are Myanmar, Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

8. Why do we use averages and what are their limitations? Provide some examples where the word “average” is used to compare situations.


  • Averages are used to compare different parameters of the same category, not people.

  • Averages do not provide information about the distribution of a particular thing between people.

  • Example: where the word average is used for comparing situations are:

  1. To find out the literacy rates in the country.

  2. Height and weight of students in a class with a total number of students.

  3. To find the average income of people in the state.

9.  “A development for one individual can be destructive for others”. Explain this statement with two examples.

Ans: Here are two examples are:

  • A businessman hires workers, those who are providing them more wages which is a development for workers, but on the other hand, it gives a loss for a businessman as he could have hired 2 or more workers at the same price.

  • Industrialists construct apartments and buildings for his/her personal development and for the nation. These apartments are destructive for farmers as they could have used this land for irrigation.

Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development Revision Notes

Class 10 SST Economics Chapter 1

The topics covered in this chapter are discussed in brief below.

What Development Promises? - Different People, Different Goals

Different Persons



Person A


Get good prices for their crops, Buying tractor or a new agricultural land.

Person B


Studying and getting a good employment.

Person C


Getting Promotion.

Society is a mixture of different people and different people have different goals and aspirations. This table shows that not all people have the same desires or goals. Buying a tractor can be said development for a farmer but not for a student or an employee. Thus, Different people can have different developmental goals.

Income & Other Goals

The aspirations or goals of a person can not only be just related to monetary aspects. Income is the most vital part to fulfill our goals and aspirations but people do have some non-material desires as well.

For example, You've got a job offer in company A and also in company B. A Provides a higher salary but no growth opportunities or a healthy job environment whereas B provides less pay with good working conditions and growth opportunities.

There are a lot of things that matter a lot but can't be measured. Thus, People also seek such non-material things besides seeking more income. Similarly, development is also a mixture of different sets of goals or desires.

National Development

As People have different goals, their notions of development will also be different. What should a country do for development? National development talks about this only.

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Class 10 social science economics chapter 1 does not talk about development in terms of individual or personal growth. It talks about Economic development and National Development.

How to Compare Different Countries?

Income is the most appropriate and important attribute to Compare different countries or states. The income of all the residents of the country is called the income of the country.

Different countries have different sizes of the population. Therefore, they can't be compared in terms of their total income.

Thus, Average income is used to compare the countries which are calculated by dividing the total population by the total income. It is also called Per Capita Income.

This criterion is also used for classifying countries as per World Development Reports of the World Bank.

  1. Countries having a per capita income of US$ 12,056 p.a. and above in 2017 are classified as rich countries.

  2. Countries having a per capita income of US$ 955 or less are classified as low-income countries.

Other Criteria Besides Income

While taking two countries or regions into consideration, not only average income is important but also public facilities do matter.

What are Public Facilities

The facilities provided by the government are called public facilities. These are provided for the welfare of the society and the development of the country.

For example Health & educational facilities, Infrastructure, sanitation, etc.

  • Kerala achieved a low infant mortality rate because of its adequate health & educational facilities.

  • In Some states, the Public Distribution System ( PDS ) works well.

Sustainability of Development

Sustainable Development means the development of the present without compromising future generations. Scientists are warning the world that present practices are not sustainable in nature. For example:

  • Exhaustion of Natural resources like Forests & Groundwater.

  • Exhaustion of Non-renewable resources like Coal, Petroleum, and natural gas.

Did You Know?

There are also Middle-Income Countries ( MICs ) which are having per capita between $ 1,036 and $ 12,535 and India lies in Low MICs having a per capita income of$1820 in 2017.

FAQs on Development Class 10 Notes CBSE Economics Chapter 1 (Free PDF Download)

1. How Countries or States are Compared? And Why?

The income of all the residents of the country is called the income of the country. States and countries cannot be compared by the total income of the country because different countries and states have different sizes of the population. Therefore, Countries or states are always compared by using the Average Income of both.

Average income is calculated by :

= Total income / Total population

This criterion is also used as per World Development Reports by the World Bank for classifying countries into various categories like rich countries or low-level income countries etc.

2. Write the Difference Between: 

  1. Development and Growth.

  2. Development and Sustainable Development.



Development means increasing standards and quality of life.

Growth means increasing national output or income.

Economic Development is a much broader concept.

Economic Growth is a part of economic development.

It is multi-directional and a long-term process.

It is a unidirectional and short term process.


Sustainable Development

It means the development of the present quantitatively and qualitatively.

It means the development of the present without compromising tomorrow.

It is done by keeping the present generation in mind.

It is done by keeping future generations in mind.

Nature and the environment might not be the vital part here. Development can lead to damage to the environment as well.

Nature and the environment are the most vital part here to be considered. Conservation is the key so that future generations can also enjoy nature & the environment.

Thus, from Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development, we can conclude that development not only means having maximum per capita income but also means improving the quality and standard of living. The goals and desires of different people are different. Hence, their ways of seeing development will also be different. We’ve also learned about how to measure and compare different countries or states. It is always done to check and analyze where we’re lacking In the end, we also solved some questions. We hope this will help in understanding the whole SST Economics Class 10 Chapter 1.

3. What is sustainable development according to Chapter 1 of Class 10 Economics?

Sustainable development is the approach of economic development of the future generations without compromising and trading off the environment. This approach is developed and applied because it is often seen that for the sake of economic development, one has to often look over the damage that the environment has to go through in the form of air and water pollution, soil erosion, land degradation, deforestation etc. Therefore, with sustainable development, one aims at promoting development that minimises environmental damage. 

4. What is sustainable management of natural resources according to the Notes of Chapter 1 of Class 10 Economics?

Due to the gradual increase in the population that results in the increase in demands, it is the need of the hour to ensure sustainable management of the resources for future generations, as the resources are seen to be depleting at an alarming rate. In order to achieve this, one can practice the 3 Rs. 

Reduce: This aims to suggest the reduction in the use of the resources unnecessarily. For example, turning the switches off when not in need to save electricity, and turning the taps off to save water.

Reuse: This aims at suggesting the reusing of things and materials as much as they can be used. For instance, reusing plastic bottles instead of just throwing them away.

Recycle: In this process, the products such as plastic, metal or glass can be recycled and manufactured instead of developing from the start.

5. Are the NCERT Solutions provided by Vedantu for Chapter 1 of Class 10 Social Science useful?

Yes, the NCERT Solutions for Chapter 1 of Class 10 are extremely useful because they give deep insight and understanding of the chapters for the students. These solutions are particularly made to meet the demands of the students. Every exercise has with them solved answers that will help the student clear their doubts. These exercises are exam based, so the student will be able to practise how to answer any question asked in the exam. Thus, getting a copy of each NCERT solution for every subject will definitely lead the student in the right direction and help them score more than 90 percent in their exams.

6. How to prepare for Chapter 1 of Class 10 Social Science Economics?

It is undoubtedly important that the student should be thorough with all the concepts that are taught to them to be able to score desirable grades in their exams. To achieve this, they have to devote a good amount of time to read the chapter thoroughly. Along with this they also need to mark the important portion, for instance studying the goals that the people desire while doing work, the national development, the comparison between different countries and states and other such topics and revise them regularly to be able to retain the concepts. It is also advisable that they write down all the doubts that might arise while reading, and clear those doubts in the classroom. Referring to the Vedantu NCERT solutions available free of cost will help them immensely. 

7. Is Chapter 1 of Class 10 Social Studies Economics scoring?

Yes, undoubtedly the Class 10 Social Studies Economics is easily scoring. But to be able to score well, it is important that the student is thorough with the topics. Without any understanding of what is being taught, even the easiest concepts become hard to write in the exams. For a subject such as social studies, the students need to take organized notes. They need to write down what they have understood in their own words under the various subheadings. This will help in sharpening their memory. Apart from this, they can also refer to the NCERT solutions available on the Vedantu website and app, which will prove to be a great source of guidance to them.  These solutions for Economics Chapter 1 have exercises with solved solutions that will make the learning process easier for the students. The students will also be able to develop an idea of how the questions are set in the examination.