New Empires and Kingdom Class 6 Notes History Chapter 10 - PDF Download
We study history to learn from our past and find out what happened to our ancestors. Class 6 History Chapter 10 depicts a very interesting part of Indian history. It describes the empires and kingdoms emerging after the downfall of the Mauryas. The ascent of the Gupta Dynasty and then many other small kingdoms wrote a unique history.
The Chalukyas, Satavahanas, Pallavas, etc were the prominent names in the Deccan part of the Indian subcontinent. By referring to the New Empires and Kingdoms Class 6 notes, you will find out how the difference between an empire and a kingdom. You will also learn the significant names that ruled different parts of our country.
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Access Class 6 Social Science (History) Chapter 10-New Empires and Kingdom
New Empires and Kingdom
The notable stories of rulers and realms are known through different engravings and sonnets written in the court of lords in various periods. The brilliance of the ruler Samudragupta was known to individuals through long engravings and verses that were created in Sanskrit. This data was subsequently recorded on the Ashokan column at Allahabad.
Samudragupta's Prashasti (Inscription)
Prashasti was a unique sort of engraving. It is a Sanskrit word that indicates "in recognition of." It is formed in extremely long sentences.
Samudragupta's Prashasti was a long sonnet composed by the court's writer Harishena. Through the engraving written by him, he realized that he talked around four sorts of rulers and Samudragupt's' strategies towards them.
Harishena expressed that there were leaders of Aryavarta, the leaders of Dakshinapatha, Gana Sangha, Kushan, and Shakas, and the leaders of Sri Lanka who Samadrugupta utterly crushed.
The writer lauded the lord as a warrior who conquered many grounds and won many fights.
The sonnet by Harishena portrayed the wonder of the lord by expressing there were many scars brought about by fight tomahawks, lances, darts, lances, spikes, bolts, and different weapons like this.
Prashasti or engraving likewise referenced the predecessors of the rulers.
Samudragupta's engraving educates about his extraordinary granddad, granddad, father, and mother.
The principal leader of the Gupta line was Chandragupta and was the dad of Samudragupta. His mom Kumara Devi had a place with Lichchhavi Gana.
In the engraving, the title of Maharaja-Adhiraja was given to Chandragupta of the Gupta line interestingly. Before that, his dad, granddad, and extraordinary granddad were just alluded to as maharajas. These ancestries plainly express the improvement of the family towards power happened steadily.
The triumph and life of Samudragupta's child Chandragupta II are known through the engravings and the coins.
Chandragupta II conquered the Shakas in the campaign to western India.
The court of Chandragupta II was brimming with instructed individuals like the renowned writer Kalidasa who made a massive commitment to court questions and in engaging the ruler. Further, the court additionally incorporated the stargazer Aryabhata.
Harshavardhana and Harshacharitra
The stories of specific rulers like lord Harshavardhana are not known through any engraving or coins. Rather it is known through the accounts.
The biographies of king Hashavradhana were written by the court poet Banabhatta. The biography is known as Harshacharitra and was written in Sanskrit. The biography also gives the readers the genealogies of king Harshavardhana.
Harsha turned into the ruler Harshavardhana of Thaneswar after the passing of his dad and senior sibling. Later, he likewise turned into the leader of Kanauj by overcoming the leader of Bengal and kept on being effective in the east, conquering both Magadha and Bengal. Nonetheless, the lord didn't get a lot of achievement in different pieces of the mainland.
Harshavardhana ruled about 1400 years ago. Xuan Zang, the famous Chinese pilgrim who visited the Indian subcontinent, also called the court of Harshavardhana.
While he was endeavoring to get Narmada and walk over Deccan, he was halted by Pulakeshin II, the leader of the Chalukya administration.
The Pallavas, Chalukyas, and Pulakeshin's Prashasti
Two significant administrations of the then time frame in South India were the Pallavas and the Chalukyas.
The locale covered by Pallavas was fundamentally around their capital Kanchipuram and reached out to the Kaveri delta. Chalukyas locale was focused in and on the space of Raichur Doab, which was in the middle of the waterways Tungabhadra and Krishna.
The capital of Chalukyas was a significant exchanging focus. It was later additionally created as a strict focus with various sanctuaries.
The two administrations frequently assaulted the prosperous town of each other, predominantly the capital.
Pulakeshin II was the excellent the most mainstream leader of the Chalukya line. Various data about Pulakeshin II and his triumph are referenced in the engraving composed by his court artist Ravikirti.
The engraving or the Prashasti illuminates the four ages from father to the child and expresses that his uncle gave Pulakeshin the realm. He additionally led a campaign on the west and the east coast.
He crushed lord Harshavardhana and assumed control over the Pallava line. Be that as it may, this triumph didn't last as both the lines were overruled by new leaders of the Rashtrakuta and Chola lines.
How Were the Kingdoms Administered?
The land revenue and the village were the fundamental administration units both for the new and the old rulers.
The latest development witnessed in the process of administration was the adoption of new methods by the king to gain the support of the rich and powerful in terms of economic, social, political conditions.
Some administrative posts were hereditary like, Harishena was the chief judicial officer like his father. Also, sometimes some officers held many offices. For instance, Harishena was not only the chief judicial officer, but he was also an essential minister of war and peace.
Influential men of the kingdom could participate in the decision-making process in the local administration. These men were like the chief banker, merchant of the city, leader or merchant of caravans, the top craftsman, and scribes.
However, such an administrative plan of gaining the support of the rich and powerful was hardly practical, and later the majority of the influential people had set up their kingdom.
The New Form of Army
Rulers during this period (and prior) kept an efficient armed force.
It comprised of chariots, elephants, infantry, mounted pressure, and so on
The armed forces were joined by performers playing drums, trumpets, and horns.
The ruler, at whatever point required, got troops from the tactical pioneers, they were not paid ordinary compensations and instead given awards as land.
Assemblies in the Southern Kingdoms
There were a few nearby congregations.
There were three gatherings Sabha, Ur, and Nagaram.
The Sabha involved Brahmin landowners and worked through the subcommittees. They used to take care of water systems, horticultural tasks, making streets, nearby sanctuaries, and comparative things like this.
The Ur was the gathering that comprised non-brahmin residents. The Nagaram was the gathering of dealers, and along these lines, it was constrained by rich and unique vendors and landowners.
Some of the nearby congregations kept on working for quite a long time.
Ordinary People of the Kingdom
Very little informationtion has been gathered concerning the existence of normal individuals. Different records of history give a brief look at their lives through plays.
Court life has been portrayed in other sports by Kalidasa. He acquired a lot of fame through his slacks.
Through these plays, it was shown that solitary the King and Brahmins spoke in Sanskrit while people other than the ruler and Brahmins talked in Prakrit.
Abhijnana Shakuntalam was a famous play dependent on the romantic tale of a young lady named Shakuntala and a ruler named Dushyanta. Likewise, this play shows the difficulties of helpless anglers.
The predicament of needy individuals has additionally been referenced in the composed work by Chinese Pilgrim Fa Xian. He referenced that the untouchables were abused by the rich and high segment of the city. They had to live on the edges of the town.
Important Questions and Answers
1. Write briefly about the Gupta Dynasty.
Ans: Gupta line existed from mid to late third century CE to 543 CE covering a massive piece of the subcontinent. There were sure lineages of Gupta rules. For example, most of the Prashasti or the engravings referenced the predecessor of the ruler. Chandragupta-I was the originator of the Gupta tradition. Through the Prashastis, it tends to be perceived that the incredible granddad of Samudragupta was essentially referenced as Maharajas, and the significance of the family step by step developed. Chandragupta II drove an undertaking to western India, where he conquered the remainder of the Shakas. His court was loaded with scholarly individuals like Kalidas, the writer, and the stargazer Aryabhata.
2. Describe the assemblies of the southern kingdom.
Ans: There were three types of congregations in the south of the realm. One was the Sabha which was the neighbourhood get-together of Brahmin landowners. This get-together took care of the water system, agricultural activities, nearby sanctuaries, making streets, and comparative things. The Ur was the second significant type of gathering in the southern realm. It comprised of non-brahmin landowners and was a town gathering. The third and considerable gathering was the Nagaram. This gathering incorporated the traders, and thus just the rich and incredible had the admittance to the advantages of this get-together and was consequently constrained by these rich and fabulous shippers.
3. Write a note on Pallavas and Chalukyas' achievements.
Ans: During King Harshavardhana, the two most significant decision lines in south India were the Pallavas and Chalukyas. On the one hand, the Pallavas realm was spread around the district of Kanchipuram, the capital, and it stretched out across the Kaveri delta. Then again, the Chalukyas area was predominantly in and around the Raichur Doab and in the middle of Tungabhadra and Krishna streams. These decision administrations regularly assaulted one another, either in the capital or some other prosperous town. One of the significant exchanging and business focuses was Aihole with various sanctuaries. Chalukyas crushed Harsha for a brief period during Pulakeshin II.
4. Describe the administration of northern Indians during the reign of Harshavardhana and Guptas.
Ans: During the reign of Harshavardhana and Guptas, certain administrative features remained the same. For instance, land revenue was given a significant amount of importance in the Gupta and Vardhana dynasties, and the basic unit of administration was the village. However, there were also certain developments in the method of administration, like the support of lords and feudal. The rulers followed various procedures and maintained them to gain political and military support from the powerful lords and feudal. They did that through either some social or economic agendas. Further, some of the positions in the administration were hereditary, and sometimes one person had the opportunity to control several offices. Some of the significant changes that occurred during this period were the rise of a new kingdom and the formation of a new kind of army.
5. Write a short note on Harshavardhana and Harshacharita.
Ans: Harshavardhana was the lord of Thaneswar. He managed 1400 years prior. He was not the oldest child of the family, and he just came to the seat after the demise of his dad and senior sibling. Further, when the leader of Bengal killed his brother by marriage, Harshavardhana took over Kanauj and drove a military against the ruler of Bengal. He likewise conquered Magadha and Bengal and certain parts in the east. Notwithstanding, when he attempted to cross the Narmada waterway to enter Deccan, he was halted by one of the significant leaders of the Chalukya line, Pulakeshin II. Harshacharitra is the account of Harshavardhana written in Sanskrit by the court's artist Banabhatta.
FAQs on New Empires and Kingdom Class 6 Notes CBSE History Chapter 10 (Free PDF Download)
1. What is the difference between kingdom and empire?
Kingdoms are smaller than empires. The emperors constructed their territory by conquering the kingdoms and incorporating them into their ruled borders. For instance, Harshavardhan was an emperor who defeated the ruler of Magadha who was a king.
2. How do we learn about different kings and emperors?
The court poets wrote prashastis and biographies of the respective rulers. These prashastis were written using the contemporary language depicting the lifestyle and decisions made by the contemporary kings. The historians use decode these prashastis and learn more about the historical times. They gather information about the empires and kingdoms using these stone anecdotes.