Delhi Sultans Class 7 Notes History Chapter 3 - PDF Download
Delhi, the capital of India, got importance only after the 12th century because of the kingdom of Tomara Rajputs. Delhi was ruled by five Islamic kings from the 13th century to the end of the 15th century. Later on, the Mughal era was started in India. Let's have a detailed explanation of these Delhi sultanates with the help of the Delhi Sultanate Class 7 CBSE Notes.
Access Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 3 in The Earliest Cities
The Delhi Sultans
The Arab attacks prompted the foundation of the Delhi sultanate. This thrived for around three centuries. The Delhi sultanate comprised: Aibak(Slave), Khilji, Tuglaq, Sayyids, and the Lodis.
Finding Out About the Delhi Sultans
The data on the Delhi Sultans is obtained from coins, engravings, and engineering.
Tawarikh was the authority authoritative under the Delhi Sultans.
Raziyya became ruler in the year 1236.
Expansion of Delhi Sultanate
Mongol invasions from Afghanistan threatened Delhi's authority.
During the reign of Ghiyasuddin Balban, the sultanate consolidation was considered.
Muhammad Tughluq and Alauddin Khalji further expanded the kingdom.
The initial set of campaigns was under the "internal frontier" of centralizing the hinterlands of the garrison.
The second wave of proliferation came under the "external frontier" of the sultanate.
Consolidation Under the Khaljis and Tughlaqs
Both the Khalijis and Tughlaqs governments designated military administrators as domain lead representatives for various size regions known as iqtas. The holder of iqtas was alluded to as muqti or iqtadar.
The Sultans did not heavily influence significant pieces of the subcontinent, nearby clan leaders governed in these districts.
Leaders like Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad Tughkuq could intermittently drive fighters here for a brief term.
Genghis Khan and his Mongolian subjects attacked Transoxiana in 1219.
The Mongolian assaults on Delhi fundamentally expanded under the standard of Muhammad Tughluq.
Sultanates of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
Until 1526 Lodi, Tughlaqs, and Sayyid dynasties ruled from Delhi to Agra.
Independent rulers ruled Jaunpur, Malwa, Rajasthan, Bengal, Gujarat, and southern India.
This period also witnessed the rise of new ruling groups like Rajputs and the Afghans.
Sher Shah Suri had started his career as the administrator of a small territory in Bihar and later on won over Humayun, the Mughal emperor
The Delhi Sultanate Class 7 CBSE Notes PDF Free Download
Who Were Delhi Sultanates?
Delhi became a great commercial center with the involvement of Tomaras and Chauhans. Delhiwal was the name of coins that were minted here. They had great demand and were widely circulated in and out of the city. Several rich merchants of Jaina came to Delhi and settled over there. They built different temples and monuments in Delhi. All these factors had a great impact on the development of the city. The transformation of Delhi into a city that ruled large regions of the subcontinent began with the founding of the Delhi Sultanate at the beginning of the 13th century. Class 7 History Chapter 3 Notes has explained all the factors involved in the expansion of Delhi.
Rulers of Delhi
The Delhi Sultanates Class 7 CBSE History Chapter 3 Notes provides a detailed explanation that Delhi was ruled by five dynasties during the period of the 12th century to the 15th century. All these dynasties were ruled by Islamic Kings but had a short span of life. Even though their life was short and was defeated by other kings, they contributed much to Delhi. The five dynasties are,
From 1206–1290, the Mamluk Dynasty.
From 1290–1320, the Khalji Dynasty.
From 1320–1414, the Tughlaq Dynasty.
From 1414–1451, the Sayyid Dynasty.
From 1451–1526, the Afghan Lodi Dynasty.
Later, the Mughal Empire was established.
(Image to be added soon)
Architecture Plan During Delhi Sultanates
The Delhi Sultanate Class 7 CBSE Notes also covers several Jain, Hindu, Buddhism temples built during the time of the Mamluk dynasty and Khalji dynasty. The early rulers of Delhi had exhibited an anthropomorphic representation in the artistic style. Indo-Islamic art came into existence due to the merging of Muslim customs and indigenous art. Several memorable monuments were constructed. They are -
Qutub Minar:- In 1192, the first ruler and also the governor, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, had started the construction of the Qutub Minar. It is the tallest minar constructed in India with 238 ft of height. The walls of Qutub Minar were designed with verses of the Quran and floral motifs of India. It is completely made of marble and red sandstone. Iltutmish, the successor of Qutb-ud-din Aibak, had completed the construction. It is the first architectural symbol of India.
Alai Darwaza:- Another notable construction discussed in Class 7 History Chapter 3 notes of the Delhi Sultanates during the 13th century. It was built by the second sultan of Delhi, Ala-ud-din Khalji, in 1311 CE. The Qutub mansion is located on the southern side of Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. It is the first real dome in India. In between the Qutub Minar and Alai Darwaza, the tomb of Sultan Balban.
Lodi Gardens and Tomb of Mohammad Shah: In the 14th century, the rulers were Sayyid and Lodi. They built Lodi Gardens and the Tomb of Mohammad Shah, reflecting the Islamic pointed arches in the octagonal main chamber. The construction of the roof has several similarities with Mughal architecture.
Expansion of Delhi Sultanates
The Delhi Sultanate Class 7 project explains that after Struggling a lot, the Delhi sultanates again controlled the Garrison towns. They expanded the trade, architecture, constructions, etc., and captured the South Indian States. Their business strategy was quite interesting, which benefited both the ends. The notable thing here is, every ruler of the dynasties had faced challenges which they overcame and in turn expanded their kingdom. The Mongol invasions had placed a checkmate to Delhi Authorities from Afghanistan. Tughluq was the first ruler who had set campaigns over the internal frontiers. In these internal frontiers, he had merged the hinterlands of Garrison towns along with forests, Yamuna doabs, habitat lands, etc.
Lodi, Sayyid, Tughluqs ruled till the middle of the 15th century. They collected taxes in three ways to feed the military people. They appointed individual rulers for all the south Indian States after the acquisition of them. These rulers started the formation of small states with respective capitals. The administration was very strong and efficient. The first manager for Bihar state, Sher Shah Sur, defeated Humayun, a Mughal emperor, and established his dynasty for 15 years.
The Class 7 History Chapter 3 Notes on the official website of Vedantu provides a detailed explanation about the Delhi sultanates, their works, Administration skills, notable works, constructions, architecture, painting styles, etc. The present capital city of India, Delhi was formed by the great contributions of all these Kings.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Explain the administrative challenges of Ala-ud-din Khalji.
Even though Ala-ud-din Khalji was a great ruler, he also had to face several administrative challenges. Let's see what those challenges were and how he overcame them.
During the tenure of Ala-ud-din Khalji, Delhi was attacked by the enemies two times. Once it was in 1299, next, it was in 1302. But he was ever ready with a standard and a strong army.
For the convenience of army people, Ala-ud-din Khalji constructed a new town called Siri.
For feeding the army, Ala-ud-din Khalji had charged taxes on houses, cattle, cultivation. This tax amount was paid to the army in the form of salaries.
The army people used this salary to purchase food and groceries. But this led to the rise in prices of groceries by the merchants.
So, Ala-ud-din Khalji kept strict rules on the prices of groceries, and the merchants could not exceed them. This led to a successful Administration of Ala-ud-din khalji after facing many challenges.
2. Describe the challenges of Tughlaqs.
Similar to Ala-ud-din Khalji, the Tughluq also faced several challenges. But he came with a new strategy. Instead of constructing a new garrison town, Tughluq had evacuated four old cities of Delhi after renovation. He kept additional taxes for feeding the military and introduced a token amount to get control over the prices. He did not keep any rules for controlling prices. Even though Tughluq tried several things to protect his army and country, nothing gave him fruitful results. Tughluq remained a failure, especially in administration.
3. Write a brief note on the administration of Delhi Sultanate provinces under the Tughlaqs and the Khaljis.
There were territories or land of various sizes known as iqtas. Military commanders were appointed as the governors of these territories. The landholders of these territories were called iqtadars or muqtis and they provided military services to the Delhi Sultan. In return, revenue from these lands was collected by these iqtadars and they could keep a part of it as their salary. Soldiers were paid by them from these revenues only. To check how much revenue was collected by the muqtis, accountants were appointed by the state. The kings also forced the samanta aristocrats to accept their authority. For a detailed explanation about the chapter, visit Vedantu website (vedantu.com).
4. Explain the types of taxes that were levied on the people during the rule of the Delhi Sultan.
During the rule of the Delhi Sultan, revenue was generated by collecting taxes from the people. Three types of taxes were levied on the people. The first one is known as “kharaj’ which refers to the tax levied on the crops. Under this, about 50 percent of the peasants’ produce was collected. The second tax was levied on cattle and finally, the third tax was levied on the houses. To revise the chapter students can download the NCERT Notes for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 3 free of cost from the vedantu website (vedantu.com).
5. What was the difference between the administrative system of Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad Tughluq?
There are many differences between the administrative system of Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad Tughluq. Some of the important differences include,
Firstly, under the rule of Alauddin Khilji, the administrative system was quite successful while under the rule of Mohammad Tughluq, it was a failure.
Alauddin Khilji’s reign was praised by the chroniclers for his implementation of cheap prices and efficient supplies of goods in the market. But, shifting of people to Daulatabad created complications under Mohammad Tughluq’s system and the raising of taxes was resented, which further led to the widespread of rebellion.
Finally, Alauddin Khilji successfully withstood the Mongol invasion threat. The 'token' currency was recalled under Mohammad Tughluq’s system. To understand more about Chapter 3 Class 7 History, visit Vedantu app.
6. State the conditions under which Delhi became an important commercial centre.
Under the rule of Tomara Rajputs, Delhi first became a capital kingdom. But, in the twelfth century, the Chahamans from Ajmer defeated Tomara Rajputs. Under their rule, Delhi, which was a capital kingdom, became a commercial centre. Many rich merchants who were known as Jaina merchants lived in the city. Several temples were constructed by them. Coins known as dehliwal minted here were very popular and had a wide circulation.
7. Why do you think Barani criticised Sultan Muhammed Tughluq?
A fourteenth century chronicler, Ziauddin barani criticized Sultan Muhammed Tughluq for the following reason. Tughluq had appointed Firuj Hajjam who was a barber, Aziz Khummar who was a wine distiller, Manka Tabbakh who was a cook and two gardeners Ladhs and Pira to high administrative posts. Ziauddin Barani had reported these appointments made by the Sultan Tughluq as a sign of his loss of political judgement and his incapacity to rule.