In the internal structure of the human body, the tibia is one of the most important bones. The other names of the tibia are Shan bone or shin bone or leg shin etc. Usually, the tibia is the most common fractured of a long bone, located in the leg. We can find the tibia below the knee and above the ankle. These two shin bones can hold the majority of the body weight. Let's have a detailed study about the tibia.

Antonyms of Tibia

We have two different bones in the lower part of the leg. One among them is the tibia, and the other is the fibula. If it is the right leg, it is termed as the right tibia and vice versa. Tibia is larger. It is the second-largest bone in the entire human anatomy. Tibia's ossification begins from three center points. The diaphysis is the central point of the tibia. It is known as the shaft of the body, and the fracture is called a shaft fracture. We have different types of shaft fractures. 

The shape of the shaft has a prism surface with three surfaces and borders. The anterior border, lateral border, and posterior surface of the tibia are more important among all. Based on the tendon occurring on the compartment, it is named with that compartment. For instance, the tendon has happened in the posterior compartment, then it is called the tibia posterior.

Classification of Tibia Fractures

The tibia fractures are classified based on three different factors. They are - 

  • Based on the location of the fracture, the tibia fractures are divided into three types. Namely - 

    • Distal tibia

    • middle tibia

    • proximal tibia

  • Based on the direction or pattern of the fracture, they are divided into another three types. They are- 

    • crosswise

    • lengthwise

    • in the middle

  • Another classification is known as an open fracture. It involves either skin or muscle surrounded by the bone.

Proximal Tibia Fractures

The proximal tibia fractures are observed at the end of the tibia, near the knee, or surrounded by the knee. Based on the area, they are further classified into different types. These proximal tibia fractures are known as tibial plateau fractures. Each one can be explained as below- 

  • Proximal Tibial Epiphyseal Fracture is a case where the fractured tibial plateau is absurd on the top of the bone and growth plate. If an injury had been done by direct force, then we can usually see this. Based on the severity of the injury, the doctor prefers either surgical or nonsurgical treatment.

  • Proximal Tibial Metaphyseal Fracture is another tibial plateau fracture. The injury is done at the neck part of the tibia, which is the side part of the knee. Children of age between two to eight usually face this fracture, and the fractured tibial plateau requires around 6 weeks to heal completely.

  • Tibia vara is another rare disorder that has the features of the above two fractures. 

Middle or Shaft Tibia Fractures

If the fracture occurs at the diaphysis of the tibia, they are said to be middle or shaft tibia fractures. Its sub-classification is - 

  • Nondisplaced fracture is a fracture at which the broken bones remain aligned. Usually, children below four can suffer a lot from non-displaced tibial fractures. 324 weeks are required to heal for toddlers. Whereas it is 6 to 8 weeks for children of 3 to 4 years of age. 

  • Displaced, noncomminuted fracture is a fracture caused by the rotating or twisting of the knee. In this fracture, the bone may not break more than two but is not aligned properly. Sportspeople usually suffer these fractures.

  • Displaced, comminuted needs another type of shaft TBL fracture where the bone can be broken into multiple fragments that cannot align. This is the highest severity of the tibial fracture. A long-leg cast can be worn for 8 weeks. The attack of a car or any vehicle leads to surgical or nonsurgical treatment.

Distal Tibia Fracture

The distal tibia fractures are seen at the ankle part of the leg. Based on the location, they are further classified into few types. They are- 

  • If the bone has broken into a straight horizontal line, then it is known as transverse tibia fracture.

  • If the bone has broken into an angled part of the shaft, it is an oblique tibial fracture.

  • If the fracture line gets encircled by the shaft due to twisting, it is called a spiral tibia fracture.

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By considering various factors of the fracture, the doctors will suggest different methods of treatment. They are - 

  • Initial treatment or medication

  • Casting and bracing. 

  • Intramedullary tibial nailing

  • Plates and screws

  • External fixation

  • Internal fixation

  • Percutaneous pinning etc

Several medicines, solutions, even screws, nails were also used in the treatment of the tibia. How to get a clear thought, in order to fill the holes in the bones, the nails and screws were placed in the process of tibia nailing. Similarly, based on the injury, different treatment methods were used.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the Symptoms of Tibia Fracture?

Ans. Every type of table fracture has the basic symptom of immediate pain. Along with this pain, some other symptoms have been absorbed by the severity of the injury. They are- 

  • The inability of walking.

  • The incapability of holding the weight of the body on the leg.

  • Wound or swelling can be observed in the injured area.

  • Deformity of a leg.

  • Sometimes, the loss of sensation at the feet.

  • Discolouring and bruising of the affected skin.

  • Less movement in ankle and knee etc 

Based on the type and severity, the symptoms may vary from one person to another. It is always good to take MRI, CT scans with the advice of a doctor to get a clear idea about the fracture.

2. What are the Causes of Tibial Fractures?

Ans. The major causes of any kind of tibial fracture are categorized as- 

  • Trauma:- This is the basic cause. The injury caused to the leg by 

    • the attack of a vehicle, 

    • Injuries got to the sports place.

    • Some hard substances may hit the lower part of the leg, especially in young children.

  • Overuse:- Due to the age factor, overuse of the knee and legs may get tires for the bones and lead to tibial fractures.

  • Osteoporosis:- This is a disorder that reduces the strength of bones and muscles and becomes more sensitive to small attacks and injuries.

3. What is the Main Function of the Tibia?

Ans. As there are two tibias in the human body- one is ready beer, and the other is left tibia. The major function of the tibia is to distribute the whole weight of the body and equally hold it by them. It helps to stand, walk properly, folding legs, sitting, etc. Also, the tibia is the second largest common strongest bone in the human body. Where the first largest bone is the femur. The shaft of the tibia has a prism shape with three surfaces and three borders. Also, the tibia shaft consists of the red bone marrow, which helps produce the red blood cells.