Sex Chromosomes

Bookmark added to your notes.
View Notes
×

Sex Chromosomes Definition Biology or Define Sex Chromosomes

Human sex chromosomes is a chromosome that varies in shape, size, and behaviour from an ordinary autosome. According to sex chromosomes definition, the sex of a person produced by sexual reproduction is determined by the human sex chromosomes, which are a normal pair of mammalian allosomes. Allosomes, heterotypical chromosomes, heterochromosomes, and idiochromosomes are words used to describe them.

According to sex chromosomes definition, Autosomes vary from allosomes in that they occur in pairs with members that possess the same shape but differentiate from many other groups in a diploid cell, while allosome pairs can differ and thus decide sex.

In 1905, Nettie Stevens and Edmund Beecher Wilson identified sex chromosomes individually.


Female Chromosome Symbol



Male Chromosome Symbol



Differentiation

How many sex chromosomes do humans have?

The answer to the question ‘how many sex chromosomes does humans have’ is that each nucleus of a human cell comprises 23 chromosomes pair, for a total of 46. Autosomes are the first 22 pairs of chromosomes. These are homologous chromosomes, meaning that they have the very same genes (DNA regions) in much the same sequence in their chromosomal sides.

Allosomes are the chromosomes of the 23rd pair, which in most females have two X chromosomes and most males have an X chromosome and a Y chromosome. Females possess 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes, whereas males have 22 pairs. 

Pseudoautosomal regions are small homologous regions mostly on X and Y chromosomes.

Throughout the ovum, the X chromosome is often identified as the 23rd chromosome, whereas a particular sperm can have perhaps an X or a Y chromosome.

One of several X chromosomes become spontaneously and permanently partially deactivated in cells apart from egg cells, in the early phase of the female development of embryo: in certain cells, the X chromosome which is inherited from the (female)mother tends to be disabled, whereas, in other, the X chromosome which is inherited from the male (father) is deactivated.

This means that each cell in the body of both sexes contains precisely a single functional and usable copy of the X chromosome. Repressive heterochromatin, which compresses the DNA and inhibits certain genes from expressing, silences the deactivated X-chromosome. PRC2 is in charge of compaction (Polycomb Repressive Complex 2).


Sex Determination

Each one of the parents supplies half of the allosomes among all diploid species with allosome-determined sex. Females are XX in mammals, and they can carry on any of their Xs, whereas males are XY and therefore can carry on perhaps an X or a Y.

A mammal should therefore obtain an X chromosome through both parents towards being a female, while a male should obtain an X chromosome from their mother as well as a Y chromosome from their father towards being male. In mammals, the sex within each offspring is therefore determined by the sperm of the male.

However, a significant number of humans grow sexually differently, a disorder defined as intersex. Allosomes which are neither XX nor XY will cause this. It may also happen when two fertilised embryos combine, resulting in a chimaera with two separate sets of DNA, namely XX and the other XY.

It may also be triggered by prenatal exposure to toxic chemicals which interrupt the usual processing of allosomes to sex hormones, leading to the production of unclear outer genitalia or major organs.


Medical Applications

Allosomes include not just the genes which decide male and female traits, as well as those which establish a number of many other characteristics. Sex-related genes are those that are borne on both sexes' chromosomes. Through the use of either of the X or Y chromosomes, sex-related disorders are inherited from parents to their of.

Men have been the only ones that inherit Y-linked traits although they generally possess Y chromosomes. Because both males and females have X chromosomes, they could get the X-linked ones. An allele is said to have been dominant or recessive depending on whether it is dominant or recessive. Whenever an abnormal gene through one parent specifically targets while the matching gene from the other parent is regular, this is known as dominant inheritance. The abnormal allele has the upper hand. To cause disease, both corresponding genes must be defective in recessive inheritance. If only one of the two genes in a set is abnormal, the disorder is either not present or is mild.

  • Colour blindness, also known as colour vision disorder, is the failure or diminished ability to see the colour or differentiate between colours under ordinary light levels. Colour blindness impacts a significant proportion of the population. There seems to be no real blindness, although there is a colour vision issue.

  • Hemophilia is a category of bleeding conditions wherein the blood takes some time to clot. X-linked recessive is the term for this type of recessive gene. Since males are hemizygous, haemophilia is far more common in men than in women. They have only a single copy of the gene in issue, however, when they possess a single mutant allele, they tend to display the trait.

  • Fragile X syndrome is a disorder characterised by variations in the X chromosome. Inherited intellectual disability (mental retardation) in males is the most common type. It's caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene. On a delicate segment of the X chromosome, a small portion of the gene code is replicated. The higher the number of repeats, the more likely there is a problem.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Is it Possible For a Female to Have the XY Chromosome?

Ans. Since they affect how a person's sex grows, the X and Y chromosomes are referred to as "sex chromosomes." The majority of men possess XY chromosomes, and the majority of women possess XX chromosomes. There are, however, girls and women with XY chromosomes. It can occur unless a girl develops androgen insensitivity syndrome.

2. What Role Do Sex Chromosomes Play in the Human Body?

Ans. The human sex chromosomes, which are abundant in genes expressed in the testis and ovary, play an extremely specialised role in mammalian germ cell growth.