The seminal vesicles (also known as seminal glands or vesicular glands) are a set of two convoluted tubular glands found behind the urinary bladder throughout male mammals. These glands secrete a substance which is partially made up of sperm.
The vesicles measure 5–10 cm long and 3–5 cm wide, and they are found between the rectum and the bladder. They do have a number of outpouchings with secretory glands (seminal vessels) that combine mostly with vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct. They take blood from the artery of the vesicular deferential and seminal vesicles produce and pump it into veins of the vesicular deferential artery. The glands were loaded with cuboidal and columnar-shaped cells. Numerous mammals have vesicles, however, none of them are marsupials, monotremes, or carnivores.
Seminal vesiculitis can be defined as the inflammation of the seminal vesicles caused by bacterial infection. This can be caused due to sexually transmitted disease (STDs) or a surgical procedure. Pressure in the scrotum, lower abdomen, painful ejaculation, penis, or peritoneum, and blood in the semen are the major symptoms of seminal vesiculitis. Antibiotics are normally used to cure it, but in some cases, surgical drainage may be needed. Other disorders that may impact the vesicles include congenital defects including failure or incomplete formation, as well as tumours, which are rare.
Galen mentioned the seminal vesicles throughout the second century AD, but the vesicles did not earn their name until much later, since they were originally presented through using the term wherein the word prostate is obtained.
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Seminal Vesicle Anatomy
Males have two seminal vesicles, as Seminal vesicle anatomy tells, which are located just below the urinary bladder and at the edge of the vasa deferentia, whereby they join the prostate. Each vesicle seems to be a braided and folded tube containing occasional outpouchings in its wall known as diverticula. The excretory duct, that connects with the vas deferens on another area of the body to create an ejaculatory duct, is the bottom portion of the conduit. The ejaculatory ducts travel via the prostate gland until emerging into the prostatic urethra's verumontanum. The vesicles are 5–10 cm in length, 3–5 cm in diameter, and contain about 13mL of fluid.
The vesiculo deferential artery and the inferior vesical artery do play their role by supplying blood to the vesicles. The umbilical arteries, that branch immediately from the internal iliac arteries, give rise to the vesiculo deferential artery. Blood is pumped into the internal iliac veins through the inferior vesical plexus and vesiculo deferential veins. Lymphatic drainage drains through the internal iliac nodes in the venous pathways.
Function of Seminal Vesicle and Prostate Gland
Function of Seminal Vesicle in Male Reproductive System:
Seminal vesicle function: A large portion of the fluid that eventually represents semen is secreted by the seminal vesicles. Fluid is metabolised from the vesicles' ejaculatory ducts (seminal duct) into the vas deferens, in which it joins the semen. After that, it moves via the urethra and is ejected throughout a male sexual response is the seminal vesicle function.
The seminal vesicles produce approximately 70-85 percent of the seminal fluid in humans.
Nutrients such as citric acid and fructose, as well as prostaglandins and fibrinogen, are present in the fluid and are one of the functions of seminal vesicle in the male reproductive system. Prostaglandins soften the mucus of the cervix and trigger reverse contractions of regions of the female reproductive tract including the fallopian tubes, ensuring that sperm are much less prone to be ejected.
Disease: Seminal vesiculitis (often recognized as spermatocystitis) is a bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the seminal vesicles. Pressure in the scrotum, penis, or peritoneum; blood within semen upon ejaculation; painful ejaculation; irritative as well as obstructive voiding signs; and impotence are some of the symptoms.
Infection might occur as a result of sexually transmitted infections or as a side effect of treatment like a prostate biopsy. Antibiotics are commonly used to handle it. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy might be suggested if a person is experiencing persistent discomfort. Unless the infection progresses to the point of being an abscess, treatment may be needed in the kind of skin drainage or surgery. Schistosomiasis, Tuberculosis, and hydatid disease might indeed damage the seminal vesicles. As per the underlying illness, such diseases were examined, detected, and treated.
Investigations: Health problems of diseases of the seminal vesicles might be ambiguous and difficult to attribute to the vesicles; however, certain disorders, including tumours or cysts, do not produce any symptoms at all. Further studies can be performed when diseases are reported, including discomfort during ejaculation, infertility, blood in the urine, or urinary tract obstruction.
A digital rectal inspection, that requires a medical professional to insert a finger via the anus, might induce more tenderness in the prostate gland than normal or expose a large seminal vesicle. A urine sample might be taken, and it is possible that blood might be found in the urine. A semen sample is needed for laboratory analysis of seminal vesicle fluid, such as for semen culture or analysis. Fructose levels are used to determine the role of the seminal vesicles, and if they are missing, bilateral agenesis or obstruction is reported.
Medical imaging, such as transrectal ultrasound, MRI or CT scans, may be used to image the vesicles. Due to differences in the normal appearance of the neighbouring prostatic urethra, or bladder trigone, a cystoscopy test, in which a flexible tube is inserted into the urethra, can reveal disease of the vesicles.
The prostate is a male reproductive system accessory gland as well as a muscle-driven mechanical transition between urination and ejaculation. It's only present in a few mammals. Anatomically, chemically, and physiologically, it varies between organisms. The prostate being anatomically located far below the bladder, with the urethra going via it. In gross anatomy, it is divided into lobes, and in microanatomy, it is divided into zones. It comprises glandular tissue and also connective tissue and is enclosed by an elastic, fibromuscular capsule.
The prostate glands generate and store fluid which is a component of semen, the material which is ejected as part of the male sexual response during ejaculation. This prostatic fluid appears to be slightly milky, alkaline, or translucent. Semen's alkalinity helps to neutralise the acidity of the vaginal tract, allowing sperm to live longer. Due to the extreme action of smooth muscle tissue inside the prostatic fluid, the prostate, along with the majority of the semen, is released in the first portion of the ejaculate. Those in prostatic fluid provide greater motility, prolonged life, and greater preservation of genetic material than the few spermatozoa released with mostly seminal vesicular fluid.
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Fluid is secreted by the prostate thus becoming part of the sperm. The fluid ejected (ejaculated) by males during the sexual reaction is known as sperm. The ejaculatory ducts, that are located inside the prostate gland, transfer sperm from the vas deferens further into the male urethra. Ejaculation is the process of releasing sperm from the urethra.
Following stimulation of the glans penis, semen is transferred into the urethra through contractions of the smooth muscle of the seminal vesicles and vas deferens. The internal pudendal nerves transmit nerve signals to the upper lumbar spine, while the hypogastric nerves transmit contraction signals.
The seminal fluid being ejaculated while travelling through the urethra and being contracted by the bulbocavernosus muscle. Proteolytic enzymes, fibrinolysin, prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate-specific and zinc antigen are among the prostate's secretions. Such secretions, along with those from the seminal vesicles, make up the majority of the secretion in semen. Few men may reach orgasm solely by stimulating their prostate gland, including by anal intercourse or prostate massage.
The two longitudinal muscle systems that extend all along the prostatic urethra are primarily responsible for the prostate's changes in shape, that promote the mechanical transition among ejaculation and urination. Across the front part of the urethra, the urethral dilator (musculus dilatator urethrae) contracts throughout urination, shortening and tilting the prostate from its vertical dimension, therefore extending the prostatic portion of the urethral channel, and then on the backside, the muscle moving the urethra further into ejaculatory state (musculus ejaculatorius). All the mentioned functions are the major function of prostate gland and seminal vesicle.