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Secretion Meaning

A mechanism in which substances are created and discharged from a cell, gland, or organ for a specific purpose or excretion.

What is a Gland?

A gland is an organ that creates and releases substances that help the body perform particular tasks.

Types of Gland

Endocrine Glands: 

Endocrine glands release substances into the bloodstream. The glands' products are secreted into the bloodstream through the basal lamina. A million, if not more, tiny blood vessels are bound to the basal lamina, which is a membrane around the glands. Hormones secreted by these glands help to preserve homeostasis. Endocrine glands include the pineal, thymus, pituitary, thyroid, and two adrenal glands.

Exocrine gland meaning they secrete their contents through a duct onto the body's outer or inner surface, such as the skin or the gastrointestinal tract. Mediate secretion onto the apical surface. This category of glands can be divided into three categories:

Apocrine Glands: 

During secretion, a part of the secreting cell's body is lost. The term 'apocrine glands' is often used to refer to apocrine sweat glands, but it is thought that apocrine sweat glands, such as those in the armpit, pubic area, skin around the anus, lips, and nipples, may not be true apocrine glands because they do not use the apocrine form of secretion.

Exocrine Gland Secretory Products may also Fall into One of three Categories:

  • Sweat glands, for example, secrete a watery, mostly protein-rich fluid-like liquid.

  • Mucous glands, such as goblet cells, secrete a viscous fluid rich in carbohydrates (such as glycoproteins).

  • A lipid substance is secreted by sebaceous glands. Fordyce spots and meibomian glands are examples of these glands, which are also known as oil glands.

Different Types of Glands in the Human Body: 

Thyroid Gland: 

The thyroid gland is found just below your larynx in the front of your body. It measures about two inches in length and has a butterfly-like appearance. It secretes hormones that affect nearly all of your body's tissues.

Pituitary Gland: 

The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located just below the bridge of your nose at the base of your brain. The hypothalamus, which lies just above it, is in charge of it. The pituitary gland is known as the "master gland" since it regulates many other hormone glands, including:

  • Thyroid

  • Adrenal gland

  • Testes

  • Ovaries

Pineal Gland:

The pineal gland is situated deep inside the brain's middle. Its exact role is unknown, but it is known to secrete and control certain hormones, including melatonin. Melatonin assists in the regulation of the sleep cycles, also known as circadian rhythms.

Secretory Cells: 

The accumulation of metabolism by-products that aren't used as backup substances is a problem for secretory cells and tissues. The majority of secretory cells are specialized cells originating from other tissues, primarily the epidermis and parenchymatous tissues. In such cases, secretory parenchymas or secretory epidermis are appropriate terms to use instead of true individual tissues.

Pancreatic Juice: 

Pancreatic juice is a fluid secreted by the pancreas that contains trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase, nucleases, and amylase, among other enzymes. The pancreas is a large part of the digestive system that is responsible for proper digestion and subsequent assimilation of macronutrient substances necessary for survival. It is located in the visceral zone.

The pancreas is made up of two groups of glands: exocrine and endocrine. It's a long, flat organ in your abdomen. The small intestine, thyroid, liver, gallbladder, and spleen surround the pancreas.

The pancreas is responsible for turning the food you consume into energy for your cells. It accomplishes this by secreting digestive enzymes into your small intestine, which break down and digest food.

The high concentration of bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice makes it alkaline. Bicarbonate aids in the neutralization of acidic gastric acid, allowing for efficient enzymatic changes. 

Gastric Juices:

Gastric acid, also known as stomach acid or gastric juice, is a digestive fluid released by the stomach lining. Gastric acid, which has a pH of 1 to 3, aids protein digestion by stimulating digestive enzymes, which work together to break down long chains of amino acids. Gastric acid production is controlled by feedback systems to increase when required, such as after a meal. Bicarbonate, a foundation, is formed by other cells in the stomach to buffer the fluid and maintain a steady pH. These cells also contain mucus, a viscous barrier that protects the stomach from gastric acid.

Castoreum Meaning:

Castoreum is a yellowish exudate produced by mature beavers' castor sacs. Beavers scent marks their territories with a mixture of castoreum and urine. Castor sacs and anal glands are found in two cavities under the skin between the pelvis and the base of the tail in both sexes of beavers. On a cellular level, the castor sacs are not true glands (endocrine or exocrine), but naming them preputial glands, castor glands, or scent glands is a misnomer.

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FAQs on Secretion

1. Why does the Gland release Secretion and Which Glands are responsible for Secretion?

Ans: Enzymes, ions, water, mucins, and other substances are secreted into the digestive tract by exocrine glands. The glands can be located inside or outside the gastrointestinal tract, in the walls of the stomach and intestines (salivary glands, pancreas, liver). Nerves and hormones are in charge of secretion. Hormone levels are largely regulated by negative feedback, which occurs when a hormone's level rises and prevents it from being released further. Humoral stimulation, hormonal stimuli, and neural stimuli are the three pathways that trigger hormonal release. Exocrine glands are responsible for any kind of secretion that takes place in the body.

2. How many Glands are present in the Human Body and which is the Largest and Smallest Gland?

Ans: The endocrine system also assists in the coordination of our body's activities. The pineal gland, hypothalamus gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus, pancreas, adrenal gland, testes, and ovaries are all endocrine glands

The liver is the body's largest gland and a distal organ of the digestive system. The smallest gland is the pineal gland. The pineal gland is a small pine cone-shaped gland found in the center of the human brain, in the epithalamus, between the two hemispheres. It was once referred to as "the third eye." Melatonin secretion, which controls the body's internal clock, takes place mainly here.