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Pulmonary Artery

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An Overview of the Pulmonary Artery

The pulmonary artery is an essential part of the circulatory system. Everyone knows that the heart is responsible for pumping blood into the different parts of the body. The pulmonary artery transports the de-oxygenated blood through the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for blood purification and removal of carbon dioxide.

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What is a Pulmonary Artery? 

The pulmonary artery is a term given to the carriers of the deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs of the human body. The word ‘pulmonary’ refers to something that can affect the lungs. The blood is responsible for carrying oxygen as well as other nutrients into the cells of the body. The heart can be seen as the muscle pump that provides oxygen in the blood. The heart consists of four separate chambers. 

The right atrium, left atrium, right, and left ventricle have an important role to play in the production of the blood that is to be carried out through the channels into the different parts of the body. The blood that is deoxygenated is returned to the system through the right atrium and then enters the right ventricle which provides the lungs with the blood that the pulmonary artery carries. In the lungs, the blood is filled with oxygen and it also gets rid of carbon dioxide. Once the blood is oxygenated, it is then transported to the heart through the pulmonary veins and then the left ventricle helps in pumping the blood right back to the different organs and body parts. 

Pulmonary Artery Anatomy 

The pulmonary trunk along with the left and the right pulmonary arteries create the shape of the letter T. The trunk forms the lower section while the right and the left branches of the artery create the two different sides that are situated on the top section. There is a valve situated right between the pulmonary trunk as well as the right ventricle in the heart. The wall is created with the help of connective tissues and the structure is made to open when the blood is pumped by the heart. This allows the blood to flow towards the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle. When the muscles of the heart relax, the valves are closed again so that the blood can be prevented from entering back into the heart. As with the different arteries, the walls of the pulmonary arteries also have different muscle layers that allow constriction and dilation. This feature is particularly different from the vein walls which aren’t that muscular or thick.

Pulmonary Artery Function 

Both the pulmonary artery and the pulmonary vein function to assist the circulatory processes in the body. However, there is a difference in the functions that both the pulmonary veins and the arteries perform. The main idea behind the process of the pulmonary circulation is to ensure the efficient transportation of oxygen through the bloodstream and removal of carbon dioxide from the blood.

One specific pulmonary artery function is carrying the blood that has low levels of oxygen and higher levels of carbon dioxide waste to the different pulmonary capillaries that are situated in the lungs. This is where the transfer of oxygen tends to take place. Further in the process, the blood that is deoxygenated will be enriched and filled with oxygen and the carbon dioxide waste will be cleared as well. After that is done, the blood will flow back through the pulmonary veins into the right ventricle of the heart. It is here that the blood flows to the left ventricle. From there the blood will be distributed to the aorta through the arteries that will finally carry all the oxygen-rich blood into the different parts of the body.

Medical Conditions Related to the Pulmonary Arteries

Since the role of transportation of oxygen is an important one, most medical conditions that tend to have an effect on the pulmonary arteries tend to create dire consequences. Some common disorders include pulmonary artery hypertension, pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary embolisms, and dilated pulmonary arteries. The dilated pulmonary artery causes are not yet discovered properly. However, certain connections to the underdevelopment of the pulmonary artery elastic tissue have been made. These conditions tend to affect the pulmonary arteries and often lead to problems in the blood flow, thus causing a variety of heart diseases in human beings.


The pulmonary arteries are functional in the circulatory system of the body. These arteries have a very specific role in the transportation of the oxygen in the blood to the different parts of the body. Hence, it is crucial for the body to have properly functioning pulmonary arteries. In case of complications in the pulmonary arteries, it is advised to have a consultation with the doctor in order to find out the right form of treatment.

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FAQs on Pulmonary Artery

1. What is the definition of a pulmonary artery?

Ans: The pulmonary artery is one of the main components of the entire circulatory system of the body. The blood is pumped by the heart that reaches different parts of the body. The entire process takes place in order to ensure that all the organs and systems in the body are functioning properly. The blood pumped by the heart carries a lot of nutrients and oxygen that the body needs. In that sense, the pulmonary arteries tend to assume the role of the carriers when it comes to transporting the deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs where the blood will be filled with oxygen again.

2. The pulmonary artery carries which type of blood?

Ans: The pulmonary artery carries the blood that doesn’t have any oxygen left in it from the heart to the lungs. The pulmonary artery works with some other organs that are a part of the circulatory system to produce blood that is filled with oxygen and doesn’t contain carbon dioxide. This particular artery will carry the blood that has served its purpose back to the lungs via the right ventricle and the right atrium. It is in the lungs that the blood that is deoxygenated will be rid of the carbon dioxide and refilled with oxygen. The next part is where the pulmonary veins as well as the left ventricle and atrium help in transporting the oxygenated blood into the different parts of the body.