Monocot and Dicot Plant Anatomy

Introduction of Monocot and Dicot Plant Anatomy

In the world of Botany or Flora, seeds are the fundamental part of reproduction in plants. But the Gymnosperms have no fruits or flowers. So, their seeds are open-eyed. On the other hand, Angiosperms have well-matured ovules. Angiosperms are considered one of the most diversified sub-group of the Plant Kingdom as it comprises about 2,00,000 species. In the plants of this subgroup,  seeds are formed inside the fruits, and also a seed coat is present in the seeds. On the basis of numbers of cotyledon, plants of the sub-group angiosperm are divided into two categories: monocot plants and Dicot plants. Angiosperms are plants that produce flowers and consist of seeds in the fruits. 

The Definition of Monocot and Dicot Root

  • Monocot Plant refers to those plants which have only one cotyledon in the seed. It is also called a monocotyledon plant. Example garlic and onion.

  • Dicot Plant refers to those plants which have cotyledon in its seed. It is also called dicotyledon plants. Example Radish and Mustard 

Monocot Leaf

Monocot Plant leaves have a parallel venation system. 

  1. Bulliform cells are found in the monocot leaves which are developed from the veins and adaxial epidermal cells. 

  2. In the mesophyll, no differentiation is found between the palisade and spongy parenchyma.

  3. The curling of leaves for the least loss of water is due to the bulliform cells which are large, void cells.

Dicot Leaf

Dicot Plants leaves have a reticulate venation system. 

  1. The epidermis, mesophyll, and vascular system are found in the lamina.

  2.  In leaves, photosynthesis is performed by the chlorophyll which is present in the mesophyll.

  3. Bundle sheath surrounds the vascular bundles which form midrib and veins. 

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Monocots Roots

  1. They consist of an adventitious root system.

  2. In monocot, the number of xylems found is six or more.

  3. Pith found in monocots is large and conspicuous. 

Dicots Roots

  1. In Dicot, the number of phloem or xylem found is two or four.

  2. The central pith in the dicot plant is inconspicuous.

  3. Cortex has an inner layer which is called endodermis. This layer is packed tightly by the barrel shaped-cells.

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Difference Between Monocot Leaf and Dicot Leaf


Monocots Leaf

Dicot Leaf


Naturally, the leaves of Monocot Plants are basically the long and narrow with parallel veins that are running through them.

The leaves of Dicots plant seem wider and differ.

Surface Area 

The surface of both sides of leaves is equally  Green.

The upper surface of the leaves is dark green and lower surface leaves are light green.

Stomata Feature 

An equal number of stomata are allotted on both the upper and lower surfaces.

Stomata are less present on the upper surface of the leaves.


The mesophyll is Unconditioned in the leaves

The mesophyll is conditioned into two forms.

Difference Between Monocot Root and Dicot Root


Monocot Root

Dicot Root


The structure of Monocot Root looks like wider and fibrous

The structure of Dicots Root looks like narrow and taproot

Xylem Structure

The xylem of the root is round or oval

The xylem of the root is Angular or Polygonal

Cortex Form

Cortex is very wide

Comparatively Narrow


the old roots are covered by an Exodermis

Older roots are covered by a Cork.

Similarities Between Monocot and Dicot Root 

  1. Both have Xylem.

  2. Cortex is present in both.

  3. Both roots absorb water and minerals. 

  4. Vascular bundle presents in both the root.

Anatomy of Dicotyledonous Roots 

  • In these plants, root leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds are fully developed.

  • The epidermal cells project out and appear as their root hair.

  • The epidermis consists of a  multi-layered cortex that is freely made of the parenchyma cells.

  • Cortex has an inner layer which is called endodermis. This layer is packed tightly by the barrel shaped-cells.

  • A layer of parenchymatous cells is used to differentiate xylem and phloem which is called conjunctive tissue.

Anatomy of Monocot Stem 

  • These stems are usually hollow and do not have secondary growth.

  • Vascular bundles are numerous. They are scattered, attached, closed, and are surrounded by the tissue.

  • Phloem parenchyma is absent in Monocot Stem.

Anatomy of Dicot Stem 

The dicotyledonous stem is usually solid. The transverse section of a young dicotyledonous stem consists of the following parts:

  • The epidermis is a protective layer that is covered with a thin layer of cuticle.

  • Cortex is multi-layered cells that are situated between epidermis and pericycle.

  • The outer layer, hypodermis, the cortical layers, and the inner layer endodermis, together with build up the three subzones of the cortex.

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FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the difference between Monocot and Dicots Root on the basis of their key features?

  • Pericycle in monocot roots produces only the lateral roots while the pericycle gives lateral roots, cork cambium, and the part of the vascular cambium in dicot roots.

  • The pith of the monocot root contains a large number of starch grains.  But in dicot root, Pith is completely shattered. 

  • In the  Monocot Root, Xylem and phloem are numerous in number. Whereas in Dicot Root, Xylem and phloem are limited in numbers.

  • In monocot roots,  passage cells are absent in endodermis. On the other hand, these cells are present in the endodermis of dicot roots.

2. What is a Dicotyledonous seed? State the key structure of a Dicotyledonous seed.

  • Dicotyledon is a classification of flowering plants where the seed empowers two embryonic leaves or cotyledons.

  • Dicotyledons have a bloated appearance due to their food reserve, which is used to bring up the developing seedling. The embryo axis has two ends, the plumule, and radicle. It is surrounded by a protective cover called the seed coat. The seed coat is built up by an outer layer called testa and an inner layer called the tegmen. A structure called hilum is found which adjoins the seed to the fruit.