Mechanism of Hormone Action

What Is The Mechanism of Hormone Action?

A hormone is a chemical messenger secreted to enable communication between cells and tissues throughout the body. They flow through the bloodline. The mechanism of hormone action begins at the endocrine system. A hormone action regulates various other systems including the excretory and reproductive system. Hormone action activities exit their respective cells of origin by the means of membrane transport. Hormones are chemical messengers of the human body that affect different tissues of the human body. The site of the hormone action is usually far away from its site of origin. In the human body, there are numerous hormones performing various functions for different purposes.

What Is The Mechanism of Peptide Hormone Action?

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Peptide hormones find their functional value in the plasma membrane of different target cells. The hormone action of peptide hormones is the so-called second messenger functions that take place within the cell.  The mechanism of peptide hormone action leads to the generation of secondary messenger hormones. These secondary messengers are also similar to hormones that are chemical messengers.

The structure of the cell surface receptors has three underlying domains that form an integral part of the membrane structure of the proteins. The three structural domains are namely:

  1. Extracellular domain

  2. Transmembrane domain

  3. Intracellular domain

Except for the receptors of the thyroid hormone, all other amino acid receptors and peptide hormones are located in the plasma membrane. At the target cells, the hormones undergo various unique biological activities. 

Hormonal Imbalance in the Human Body

Hormonal imbalance in the human body is caused due to several health conditions. Some major diseases caused by hormonal dis functionalities are diabetes, thyroid disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and various other menstrual syndromes. Ovarian tumours and ovarian cysts are common conditions caused as a result of excess Androgen in the human body.

The Different Hormones Performing Different Functions are as Follows:

  • Thyroid: Heartbeat regulation and maintains calorie intake.

  • Pancreas: produces insulin and regulates blood sugar level.

  • Ovaries: The ovaries secrete sex hormones that are essential for reproductive cycles. 

  • Pituitary Gland: The pituitary gland is the major hormone-releasing organ of the body. The gland releases all of the major hormones of the human body.

  • Adrenal Gland: The adrenal gland releases stress hormones.

There are two mechanisms of hormone action that are required for the proper functioning of the human body.

Solved Examples

  1. Explain the Two Mechanisms of Hormone Action in The Human Body.

 The two mechanisms of hormone action in the human body are broadly divided into two groups:

  • Mobile receptor mechanism

  • Fixed membrane mechanism

Fixed Membrane Mechanism: In the fixed membrane mechanism the hormones can’t pass through the lipid membranes. This type of mechanism is generally shown by water-soluble hormones such as amines or proteins. The hormones bike to the cell membranes during the hormone action.

Mobile Receptor Mechanism: In this form of hormone action the steroids and fatty acids can pass through the lipid membranes easily. The hormones bind to the target receptor and enzymatic activates.

  1. What are The Features of Hormones?

Hormones are the chemical messengers of the human body. Different hormones have different effects on the functioning of the human body. The hormones help in growth, metabolism, development, reproduction and secretion of fluids. The mechanism of hormone action will start at a certain time and keep working over a continuous period of time. A few important hormones of the human body are Insulin, thyroid hormones, oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone and serotonin.

Fun Facts About The Hormone Action In The Human Body

  • Although oestrogen is a female or one and testosterone is a male hormone, both male and female bodies need these two hormones.

  • The hormone action in the human body performs the following functions.

  • Progesterone helps maintain body balance.

  • Our memory, learning and motor control activities need testosterone and oestrogen.

  • Women become hormonal during their menstrual cycle as the rate of secretion of progesterone increases during a very short span.

  • Oxytocin is an essential hormone and is important during childbirth.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is Insulin and its Function?

The Insulin hormone is produced in the pancreas. In this hormone action the sugar from the carbohydrates that we intake is stored for energy in the future. The blood sugar level in your body is kept minimum or under control because of insulin. Too high level of Insulin causes hyperglycemia while low level causes hypoglycemia. People with diabetes can not generate sufficient insulin. Therefore they need to be given insulin injection regularly to keep their blood sugar levels checked. Both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes patients need shots of insulin. The various types of insulin treating diabetes are rapid-acting insulin, short-acting insulin, long-action insulin and more.

2. Explain the Hormones as regulators and messengers.

The basic mechanism of the hormone action in the human body involves regulation and sending messages. A hormone action helps to maintain the internal environment of the body. Hormone regulation can be of two types: positive feedback control and negative feedback control. Examples of positive feedback control are blood clotting and the menstrual cycle. In the negative feedback control, the temperature and blood sugar regulation is maintained. It has already been discussed previously that hormones are the chemical messengers of the body. The neurohormones stimulate the pituitary glands to release various hormones which then carry information to their respective functioning sites.  The neurohormones are also known as releasing factors of hormones.