Difference Between Nervous System and Endocrine System

Introduction:

The nervous and endocrine systems are the two most important regulatory systems of several living beings. These two systems help the body to work according to its surrounding environments and also help protect it.


The working pattern of these two systems is similar, as both send signals to targeted cells from the brain. However, the difference between the nervous system and endocrine system is also very distinct.


To understand the differences between the endocrine and nervous systems, the basic concepts of these two systems need to be clear in the first place.


The Nervous System

The nervous system of the body receives, processes, and reacts to the collected information by using electrical impulses. The nervous system is the part of an animal's body that regulates behavior and communicates with other body parts. The central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) are the two primary elements of the nervous system in vertebrates (PNS). The brain and spinal cord reside in the CNS. The PNS is made up of nerves, which are long fibers that connect the CNS to every other part of the body, as well as peripheral ganglia, sympathetic and The enteric nervous system is a semi-independent portion of the neural system that controls the gastrointestinal system, as well as the parasympathetic ganglia.


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Cells of the Nervous System

Two types of cells are present in the nervous system – neurons and glial cells. Neurons are responsible for collecting and transmitting the received information by sending electrical impulses through the entire body. Glial cells surround the neurons and provide them with required metabolic and mechanical support. 


Three Categories of Neurons are Visible Based on their Functions-


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  • Sensory Neurons

The primary objective of these neurons is to transmit impulses from the sense-receiving organs of the body such as ears, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose. Sensory neurons are nerve cells that are triggered by sensory information in the environment. When you touch a heated surface with your fingertips, for example, sensory neurons fire and send messages to the rest of the nervous system about the information they have received.


  • Motor Neurons

These types of neurons are designed to carry impulses to different glands and muscles. Motor neurons (MNs) are neuronal cells that influence a wide range of downstream destinations in the central nervous system (CNS). The existence of MN subtypes matching the identification of the targets they innervate is inferred by this function.


  • Interneurons

Interneurons pass the signals between different types of neurons. Interneurons are the core nodes of neural circuits that allow sensory or motor neurons to communicate with the central nervous system (CNS). In the adult mammalian brain, they serve crucial roles in reflexes, neuronal oscillations, and neurogenesis.


Parts of the Nervous System

The Nervous System is Regulated into two Parts – 

  1. Central Nervous System or CNS

The brain and spinal cord are the two parts of the CNS. As per the transmitted information through the neurons, the brain develops commands for the rest of the body. The spinal cord works as the connector between the brain and the other parts of the body.

  1. Peripheral Nervous System or PNS

The PNS has two parts – the somatic nervous system or SNS and the autonomic nervous system or ANS. The SNS controls reflexes like pulling hands from a hot surface and other voluntary activities like movements of muscles.


The ANS regulates the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Also, this system controls activities that are not under conscious control.


The Endocrine System

The endocrine system controls the operations of organs and cells by using chemical signals. These chemical signals pass through the blood and are called hormones. Glands create hormones, which are then transported through the bloodstream to various bodily tissues. They provide signals to the tissues, instructing them on what to do. When the glands don't generate enough hormones, illnesses emerge that can have a wide range of consequences. These regulate a variety of biological functions, including:

  • Respiration

  • Metabolism

  • Reproduction

  • Sensory perception

  • Movement

  • Sexual development

  • Growth


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The endocrine system, which is made up of all of the body's hormones, is in charge of regulating all biological processes in the body from conception to old age, including brain and nerve system development, reproductive system growth and function, metabolism, and blood sugar levels. The endocrine system is made up of important components such as the female ovaries, male testes, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.


Common Glands and Hormones


Gland

Hormones

Act

Adrenal

Adrenaline

In an emergency like a fight or flight

Adrenal

Cortisol

Controls immunity and metabolism

Thyroid

Thyroid

Controls metabolism

Testes, occasionally from ovaries and adrenal gland

Testosterone

Regulates male reproductive and sexual development

Ovaries

Estrogen

Regulates female reproductive and sexual development

Pancreas

Insulin

Controls blood sugar and storage of fat

Pancreas

Glucagon

Controls blood sugar


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Difference Between Nervous System and Endocrine System:


Nervous System 

Endocrine System

In the nervous system, electrical impulses carry messages to different organs of the body.

The endocrine system uses hormones, chemical signals, to carry commands to the destined organs and cells.

Nerve or electrical impulses transmit through neurons.

Hormones travel through bloodstreams.

Brains and spinal cords, the two major body parts are used in this regulatory system.

Several organs like testes, ovaries, etc., and glands like the pituitary, thyroid, etc. regulate the hormones.

The nervous system can control voluntary as well as involuntary activities.

All the activities and operations under the endocrine system are involuntary.

Electrical impulses can enter into the targeted cells by using neurotransmitters at the synaptic gap and channels of potassium and sodium.

Hormones use a diffusing mechanism to travel via the plasma membrane of the organs or fusing mechanism with the cell receptors to enter the aimed cells.

All the activities are majorly localized.

All the activities are majorly widespread.

The signal transmission process is fast.

The signal transmission process is slow.

The operating cell in the nervous system is interconnected. 

The involved organs are not interconnected. Therefore, through the blood vessels, the hormones are transferred.

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FAQs on Difference Between Nervous System and Endocrine System

1. Write any two Differences Between Endocrine and Nervous System.

The primary difference between the nervous system and the endocrine system is in the nervous system electrical impulses are used, whereas the endocrine system involves a chemical signal called hormones. Secondly, the nervous system is formed by a collection of neuron cells, glands, and organs that operate the endocrine system.

2. What factors can have an impact on your endocrine system?

Puberty, aging, pregnancy, the environment, heredity, and certain diseases and treatments, such as naturopathic medicine, herbal supplements, and prescription pharmaceuticals such as opioids or steroids, are some of the factors that alter endocrine organs.

3. What are the top three most prevalent nervous system conditions?

The following are six common neurological illnesses and how to recognize them.

Headaches. Headaches are one of the most frequent neurological illnesses, afflicting people of all ages. Stroke, Epilepsy and Seizures, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's and Dementia, Parkinson's Disease.

4. How does the Endocrine Regulation System Work?

A mechanism called negative feedback controls this system. Controlling the concentration of the hormones is majorly regulated in this system.

5. What are the Parts of the Nervous System?

Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system are the two parts of the nervous system.


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