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Denaturation Process

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Brief Introduction of Denaturation

As the name suggests, denature means ‘unfold’ and the process of unfolding is called Denaturation. This process is carried out for proteins, DNA and Enzymes. Usually, it is done to modify the structure of the component, be it protein or DNA. However, many of our must-haves heard about protein denaturation. But, there can be two more components as well for this process, i.e., DNA and Enzymes. 

The process of denaturation is different for all three components. However, it is carried out with the heating process. With this article, we have mentioned the details, concepts, and causes of the denaturation of DNA, protein, and enzymes. Now, let’s understand all the concepts one by one.


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What is Denaturation of Protein?

Proteins are responsible for the functioning of the body. Protein can be supplied from food items like cheese, pulse, milk, meat, nuts, etc. But sometimes, the shape of the protein gets disturbed. This is known as protein denaturation. In the process of Denaturation of proteins, the weak linkages or bonds get broken. These linkages are responses to the shape of the protein. Therefore, when it gets broken, the shape of the protein gets disturbed. However, what causes the denaturation of proteins? 


What Causes Denaturation of Proteins?

The shape and structure of a protein should remain undisturbed. It is so because it is responsible for the smooth functioning of the body. But in some cases, the stability of the protein gets disturbed leading to the denaturation of proteins. The cause and process of this instability include:

  • Any change in temperature and pH can affect the stability of protein to a great extent. In this case, the hydrogen bonds of the protein get disturbed. This leads to the uncoiling of the helix structures and the unfolding of globular proteins.

  • However, the uncoiling of the helix structure can lead to the loss of biological activity of the protein. 

  • Therefore, change in temperature and pH level is what causes denaturation of proteins. 

Now, after understanding what is denaturation of proteins let's move on to the denaturation of DNA. 


What is the Denaturation of DNA?

DNA is made up of a double-strand, and in the process of DNA denaturation, these two are unwounded to form two individual strands. This process is done by researchers to carry out any research or study on DNA. However, for this process, an individual needs to change the temperature and increase the pH level. With these changes, the strands get easily separated.

However, there are various methods for the denaturation of DNA. This includes thermal denaturation, extreme pH, and other agents. As far as these other agents are concerned, the low salt concentrations can help in the destabilization of the DNA. Even formaldehyde and urea can help in this process. 

But, if you read any denaturation of DNA, you will explore two things, the first is denaturation, and the other is Renaturation of DNA. These two terminologies are studied together, and they are opposite to each other. 

The difference between DNA Denaturation and Renaturation is as follows:

  • DNA denaturation is the process where double strands are separated into two individual strands. But in DNA Renaturation, these two strands are combined to form a pair of strands. 

  • In the process of DNA denaturation, there is the unwinding of DNAs, while in DNA Renaturation, these un-winded DNAs are re-winded. 

  • Denaturation is done with the help of the healing process, while renaturation is done with the help of the cooling process.

  • DNA Denaturation decreases the viscosity, while DNA denaturation increases the viscosity level.

  • In the denaturation process of DNA, the rate of UV absorbance increases but, it decreases in the case of renaturation of DNA.

Therefore, this shows that DNA Denaturation and Renaturation are two opposite concepts. Both have their relevance in the study of DNA. Now, after understanding the basics of the denaturation of DNA, here are the details about Enzymes Denaturation. 


Fun Fact - What is the Denaturation of Enzymes?

In the denaturation process of enzymes, the original properties of the enzymes get lost. In biology, the enzyme is made up of thousands of amino acids. Enzymes are protein molecules, and they work consistently. This work is consistent until the denaturation of enzymes. With the denature, the enzymes no longer stay active and lose it’s functioning. 

As enzymes are protein molecules, the denaturation process is the same. The cause of its denaturation is the same as the protein denaturation. The extreme temperature and level of pH can lead to the denaturation of this protein molecule. 


Conclusion

In science, the process of denaturation is important from the point of the research and studies. This process is majorly carried out for the enzymes, proteins, and DNA. With this article, we have covered that what is denaturation of protein, and DNA is. We kept everything very simple, and all topics are covered with this.

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FAQs on Denaturation Process

1. Why is the Denaturation of proteins important?

Proteins are important for the body, and used for formulating new drugs as well. It is performed through a denaturation process. Therefore, the Denaturation process is important from the point of view of research. The results of the denaturation of proteins serve as an important key for finding biological processes. In this process, it is observed that protein is changing the structure in the presence of some chemicals. These changes help to find new drugs. The researchers apply microfluidics to study the denaturation process and proteins. Therefore, denaturation of protein can help in finding a solution to a health problem. 

2. Is rubbing alcohol the same as denatured alcohol?

No, denature and rubbing alcohol are different in terms of usage. Denatured alcohol is ethyl alcohol, which is toxic. This alcohol is safe to consume but it tastes bad. This agent works as a solvent and fuel additive. Therefore, it is used for finishing and sanding purposes. While on the other hand, rubbing alcohol is a minor cleaning solvent, and rubbing it can work as an antiseptic. Apart from this, rubbing alcohol is used for medical purposes. It is of surgical spirit rather than the methylated spirit. Rubbing alcohol is a type of denatured alcohol that is different from denatured one. However, it consists of 70 percent of ethanol in concentrated form.