What is Water Scarcity?

Water scarcity occurs due to both natural causes and human causes, it is a situation where a sufficient amount of water is not available to meet the demands within a region. As we all know water is unequally distributed over the earth surface and of that amount much of it is wasted, polluted and sustainably managed.

Water scarcity is not at a global level but there are places or areas where there is water scarcity. One of the major regions behind water scarcity is that its demand has increased twice that earlier as the population is growing exponentially. In several countries of the world like China, India, Pakistan. In Africa and Middle Eastern countries, pressure on water resources is increasing daily. The article deals with the discussion of water scarcity.  The major causes of water scarcity and the effects of water scarcity are also discussed in the article. 

Major Causes of Water Scarcity

Nearly 1.2 billion people, according to recent studies, do not have access to safe drinking water. Water shortages can also result in a number of ailments, ranging from food poisoning to cholera. Water shortage is often caused by two major factors: rising freshwater usage and depletion of viable freshwater supplies. Furthermore, there are two sorts of scarcity: physical scarcity and economic scarcity. When a natural water supply is inadequate to fulfill the demands of a specific location, a physical water shortage occurs. Some of the major causes of Water Scarcity are discussed below:

1. Overuse of water

Nowadays, the overuse of water is increasing day by day and people are using an extra amount than needed. In certain cases water is also overused by people, animals, land, or any other number of things, sometimes it is also unnecessarily used for recreational activities without any care about the effects that it may have on the world around them.

2. Pollution of water

Now a day's increase in water pollution is a major cause of concern, as it is a major factor behind the scarcity of water. Water gets polluted from any pollutants like oil, carcasses, chemicals, and fecal matter. We all need to focus on this issue so that we can stop water from getting polluted as it is our major need. 

3. Conflict

Sometimes conflict present between the land causes water scarcity which can hinder local infrastructure which may cause disruptions of the water supply for many people.

4. Drought

Drought is common in areas that are hot and dry. As they are places where they do not receive enough rainfall and this creates a hindrance in the sustainability of life. Some areas are permanently dry whereas some areas suffer dryness occasionally. 

5. Global warming

Global warming is one of the major reasons behind water scarcity, it is a condition where average air temperature becomes warmer, water from rivers and lakes evaporates faster, which may lead to the drying up of water bodies. So, one who depends on water for their living will be one who will suffer a lot because of water scarcity. So we have to work over all these factors to stop this. 

6. Groundwater pollution

Unwanted use of fertilizers and other harmful substances can cause groundwater pollution, which ultimately leads to scarcity of water. 

Effects of Water Scarcity

Let us look into some of the effects of water scarcity. One of the important results of water scarcity is pollution. For example, if there is insufficient water for sanitation, water becomes contaminated due to the entry of disease-causing bacteria. In fact, this is how 88 per cent of all water-borne infections are spread. Furthermore, water shortage might disrupt the ecosystem's equilibrium. Food networks are damaged, and biodiversity suffers as a result. Here are some problems listed below which arise because of water scarcity:

  • lack of access to drinking water

  • hunger

  • diseases

  • sanitation issues

  • poverty

  • migration

  • destruction of habitats

  • loss of biodiversity

Factors to Reduce Water Scarcity

Since we have understood the importance and effects of water scarcity let us look into some of the factors are listed below by which we can reduce water scarcity:

1. Save Water Whenever Possible

We can save water in every possible way like by doing water harvesting, taking short showers, the use of washing machines, etc.

2. Education

By educating people about the importance of water in our daily life, we can reduce the water scarcity problem very effectively. 

3. Recycle Water

We all should adopt the water recycling process by practising water harvesting, and by using other techniques. As this method is really effective, do reduce water scarcity. 

4. Improve Practices Related to Farming

As we all know farming and irrigation practice is the major reason behind water scarcity. So to reduce this we all need to work on our agricultural practice so that we can reduce the use of water while doing agriculture.

5. Less Use of Chemicals in Farming

We all should stop using chemical fertilizers instead of that we all should use organic manure. 

In conclusion of the article, we have seen the factors that led to water scarcity, we have also learnt about the effects and the causes of water scarcity. Apart from it, the major steps taken to reduce it are also discussed in the article.

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