Botanical Name of Chilli

Mirch ka Botanical Name or Botanical Name of Chilli

The chilli is the fruit of plants belonging to the nightshade family, Solanaceae, and belonging to the genus Capsicum. Chilli peppers are commonly used as a seasoning to add heat to dishes in many cultures. Capsaicin and related compounds are known as capsaicinoids are the compounds that give chilli peppers their heat when consumed or applied topically.

The botanical name of chilli is referred to as Capsicum frutescens. 

Mexico is the origin of chilli. Many cultivars of chilli pepper spread throughout the world after the Columbian Exchange, and they are now used for both food and traditional medicine. Capsicum annuum is thought to be the source of all cultivars grown in North America and Europe, which have white, yellow, red, purple, or black fruits.

Capsicum fruits have been a part of human diets since about 7,500 BC, and are one of the Americas' oldest cultivated crops, with chilli pepper cultivation dating back 6,000 years to east-central Mexico. In Mexico, Central America, and parts of South America, they were one of the first self-pollinating crops. Since Peru is a centre of diversification where varieties of all five domesticates were introduced, grown, and consumed in pre-Columbian times, it has the highest cultivated Capsicum diversity. Bolivia is home to the world's largest variety of wild Capsicum peppers.

Species of Chilli

Chilli peppers come in five varieties that have been domesticated. Many popular varieties of Capsicum annuum include bell peppers, wax, cayenne, jalapenos, Thai peppers, chiltepin, and all types of New Mexico chile. Malagueta, tabasco, piri piri, and Malawian Kambuzi are all varieties of Capsicum frutescens. The hottest peppers, such as the naga, habanero, Datil, and Scotch bonnet, belong to the Capsicum Chinese family. The rocoto peppers of South America belong to the Capsicum Pubescens genus. Aji peppers from South America belong to the Capsicum baccatum genus.

There are several cultivars and methods of preparing chilli peppers that have various names for culinary use, even though there are only a few widely used varieties. Green and red bell peppers are both cultivars of C. annuum, with immature peppers being green. The jalapeno, poblano (also known as ancho when dried), New Mexico, serrano, and other cultivars are all members of the same genus. Bell peppers, sweet peppers, and spicy peppers are the three most popular types of peppers. The majority of common pepper varieties are classified as belonging to one of these groups or as a hybrid of the two.

Phonetics of Chilli

The three spellings of chilli are: chili, chile, and chilli, these all are recognized by the dictionary. Below is their usage:

In traditional Anglophone parts of the United States and Canada, chili is commonly used. However, it is also a common abbreviation for chilli con carne (literally "chilli with meat"). Chilli powder, which may apply to pure dried, ground chilli peppers or a mixture containing other spices, is used in most variants.

Chile is the most popular Spanish spelling for this plant and its fruit in Mexico and many other Latin American countries, as well as some parts of the United States and Canada. Chile also refers to a thick, spicy, un-vinegared sauce made from this fruit, available in red and green varieties, and served over local food in the Southwest United States (particularly New Mexico), while chilli refers to a meat dish. chile or chiles is the plural form.

The Oxford English Dictionary mentions chile and chili as variations of chilli, which was the original Romanization of the Náhuatl language word for the fruit (chili). Chilli is the preferred British spelling, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore, and South Africa, chilli (and its plural chillies) is the most common spelling.

Usage of Chilli

Domestic Use:   

The strong outer skin of many fresh chillies, such as the poblano, does not break down when cooked. Chillies are often used whole or in large slices, with the skin blistered or charred by roasting or other methods to avoid fully cooking the flesh underneath. The skins normally come off quickly once they've cooled.

The entire chilli is used in many Mexican dishes, including variations on chiles rellenos. Until grinding to a paste, rehydrate dried whole chillies. The chipotle is a ripe jalapeno that has been smoked and dried. Chiltepin peppers (a wild pepper) are used in cheeses and soups in the northern Mexican states of Sinaloa and Sonora to add spiciness to dishes. Mole sauce is made of dried chiles like ancho and chipotle peppers in southern Mexico. Salsas are made with chiles. Chile plants are commonly grown in Mexican households for use in cooking.

Most Indian households keep a supply of fresh hot green chillies on hand at all times and use them to spice most curries and dry dishes. In the beginning stages of preparation, it is typically lightly fried with oil. In some Indian states, such as Rajasthan, whole dishes are made entirely of spices and chillies.


To alleviate pain, capsaicin, the chemical that makes chilli peppers hot, is used as an analgesic in topical ointments, nasal sprays, and dermal patches.

High Nutrition Value: 

Although red chillies have a lot of vitamin C, other species have a lot of beta-carotene, which is a provitamin A.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are Indian Green Chillies and Red Chillies Called?

Green chilli is called Hari Mirch in Hindi, where "Hari" means "green" and "Mirch" means "chilli."  Mirch is commonly known in Hindi in India which is generally used in food. The mirch ka botanical name “ capsicum frutescens”. Indian green chiles are fresh, slender chiles that are used in curries, stews, pickles, and eaten raw as a condiment.  Red chillies are called lal mirch which is commonly used as a powder in foods. Red chillies are also referred to as chilli pepper. The red chilli botanical name is Capsicum annum which is found in Indian foods or can say without this Indian food is incomplete.

2. Why is it Referred to as Chilli?

Chillies get their name from the Nahuatl (Aztecan) chilli, which is the local name for the peppers. When referring to the peppers locally or in Europe, the Spanish explorers kept the name (Chili). Chilly is derived from the Middle English word "chile," which means "cold." as chilli is referred to as Mirch in Hindi. The Mirchi botanical name and botanical name chilli are referred to as capsicum frutescens.