Body Movements

Introduction: What are Movements?

There are no different anatomical gestures. They usually involve bones or parts of the body that move around fixed joints relative to the main anatomical axes (sagittal, coronal, frontal, etc.) or parallel planes.

The skeleton allows the whole body to be transferred and the individual parts thereof. The bones form joints which serve as hooks, allowing the muscles to pull on them to create motion. The skeletal bones have bases for muscle attachment.

Types of Joints

There are various types of joints in our body to help us perform different moves and activities. Let's have some of them learn.

Ball and Socket Joints

Of all the joints in the body, the Ball and Socket Joint provides for the largest range of movement 

  • In this type of joint, one end of the bone is formed like a ball, and slips into a hollow socket at the end of another joint. 

  • Held together by tendons and ligaments.

Pivot Joints: This Allow Only Rotation

  • The joint works by the end of one bone having a "bar" which falls into a "cone" shaped by the other bone.

  • A pivotal junction is at the top of the spinal cord, between the spine of the neck and the bones of the atlas. This helps us turn, lift and lower our heads-this is important for relaxation and awareness.

Hinge Joints

With only a small amount of rotation (bending and straightening) this allows considerable flexion and extension.

  • Two ends of the bone which have smooth surfaces join to form the joint.

  • Strong ligaments prevent the bones to slip off from side to side.

Gliding Joints

This allow flexion and extension through a slight gliding motion between the ends of small bones such as hands and feet.

  • These little bones can move over each other to make the hands and feet more flexible. 

  • They are connected by tight ligaments and stopped moving to a point.

Saddle Joints

The joints of the saddle happen when concave and convex surfaces cross.

  • The joints on the saddle cause the joint to move forward and backwards, from right to left.

  • Examples of joints to the saddle include fingers and thumbs.

Condyloid Joint

The full convex shape of one bone end fits within the Condyloid Joint in the full concave shape of an adjacent bone. 

  • This makes movement in all directions except full rotations. 

  • The wrist is the main example of the Condyloid joint.

There Are Six Types of Movement Which the Joints Can Exhibit

These are: – 

  • Extension 

  • Flexion 

  • Abduction 

  • Adduction 

  • Circumduction 

  • Rotation

Hinge joints allow flexion and extension only.

Flexion – bending a joint. This occurs when a joint angle is decreasing for eg, when he does a biceps curl, the elbow flexes. The leg flexes as it prepares to kick a ball.

Extension – straightening a joint. It occurs when the angle of a joint is changed, e.g. the elbow when a shot is fired. When a high-jumper takes off (the other leg is flexed), the knee takes off stretches.

Ball and socket joints also allow flexion and extension.

The shoulder joint flexion occurs when the humerus (upper arm) moves forward from the rest of the body, which occurs in the round at the end of an underarm or bowl.

Hip joint flexion occurs when the femur (upper leg) travels forward, which occurs when high jumpers fall in rugby or at the end of a kick.

Extension: The shoulder extension occurs when the humerus moves away from the rest of the body, and occurs in front crawl at the end of the pull movement. Extension of the hip joint occurs when the femur moves backwards, which happens when preparing for a kick in football, or when a gymnast takes a split leap in the back leg.

Ball and socket joints also require movement forms known as abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction.

Abduction – Move away from the corporeal midline. This happens during a jumping jack motion at the hip and shoulder joints.

Adduction – Movement into the body midline. This occurs on the hip and shoulder, returning the arms and legs from a jumping jack action or when swimming in the breaststroke to their original position.

Circumduction – It is here that the arm passes in a circle. It happens during an overarm tennis operation or cricket ball at the shoulder joint.

Rotation – This, like using a screw driver, is where the limb turns around its long axis. It occurs in the golf hip joint when making a drive shot or the shoulder joint while hitting a forehand topspin in tennis.

Movement in Other Organisms


The earthworm's body is made up of various rings that are attached end to end. There are no bones inside of the body. In addition, the muscles are the primary factor that triggers outspread behavior and shortens them.

In addition, the body of the earthworm discharges a slimy fluid that assists in travel. It also holds a large number of tiny bristles which project outwards. Each of these bristles is attached to the muscles to help maintain a good grip on the ground.


Snails over its back carry a rounded structure. The body, as well as a snail 's external skeleton, are not constructed from bones. It can be counted as one unit, and has no role in the body's overall activity. Snails use a muscular foot to access movement.


For a bird, light bones and strong muscles work together to develop movements which lead to flying action.


It is worth remembering that the tail and head of a fish is typically smaller compared to the middle part. This body shape is called streamlining. Thus the design allows the water to flow around easily and allows the fish to reach mobility in the water.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What Are the Basic Body Movements?

The human body can execute seven basic moves and all other movements are merely combinations of these seven: lift, drive, squat, lunge, hinge, rotate and gait.

2. What Are the 4 Types of Movement?

Four basic types of motion exist in the world of mechanics. These four are rotary, linear, oscillating, and reciprocating. Each moves in a slightly different way and each type of accomplishment uses different mechanical means to help us understand linear motion control.

3. What Are the 7 Foundational Movements?

The human body can execute seven basic moves and all other movements are simply combinations of these seven: lift, drive, squat, lunge, hinge, rotate and gait. You will be able to stimulate all of the major muscle groups in your body by doing all of these movements.

4. What is Joint Movement?

Synovial joints allow movement of the articulating bones at the point of contact. Synovial joints allow the bones to slide past each other or to rotate around. This results in movements called abduction (away), adduction (toward), extension (open), flexion (close), and rotation.