Blood Group Test

Why is Awareness of Blood Groups Important?

We all should be aware of our blood groups. Blood transfusion plays a very important role in our body. Knowing our blood type helps us to pick appropriate blood for transfusion either during any emergencies or accidents.

Here may be a simple and easy experiment to seek out our blood group sitting reception with the assistance of a blood type Test Kit.

A human blood corpuscle includes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. All these blood cells play a very important role when it comes to  transportation, protection and regulation. Blood groups are mainly determined by the presence or absence of antigens and antibodies on the surface of our red blood cells also known as the Erythrocytes. The transfusion from the incorrect blood type are often life-threatening.

There are basically four major blood groups namely: A, B, AB and O. The blood grouping system was discovered within the year 1901 by Karl Landsteiner- an Austrian biologist and immunologist.

 

Method to Test Blood Group 


Aim

The basic purpose of conducting this experiment is to understand the basic concept of the different ABO blood group system and with the help of this procedure get to know our blood group and type.

 

Materials Required

  • Toothpicks

  • Blood sample

  • Alcohol Swabs

  • Lancet

  • Clean glass slide

  • Sterile cotton balls

  • Biohazard disposal container

  • Monoclonal Antibodies (Anti-A, B, and D)

All these equipment will be readily available in a blood test tool kit.

 

Procedure

  • First, take a glass side and mark three circles on it after cleaning the slide.

  • Unpack the Monoclonal Antibodies (MAB) kit. Now with the help of a dropper, add the Anti-A, Anti-B and Anti-D in the first, second and third circle respectively in a sequential order.

  • Keep the slide aside safely without disturbing.

  • Now you need to wipe the ring finger with the alcohol swabs and rub gently near the fingertip, where the blood sample will be collected.

  • You need to prick the ring fingertip with the lancet and wipe off the first drop of the blood.

  • As blood starts flowing out, allow it to fall on the three circles of the glass slide by gently pressing the fingertip.

  • We must apply pressure on the pricked part in order to stop the blood flow.Use the cotton ball if required.

  • Mix the blood sample gently with the help of a toothpick and wait for a minute to observe the result.

Precautions

Discard the alcohol swabs, lancet, cotton balls and toothpick after their use. Drop all the materials, including the glass slide into the biohazard disposal container after observing the result.

As mentioned above, there are four major blood groups and eight different blood types, collectively called the ABO Blood Group System. The groups are known to be based on the presence or absence of  two specific antigens and antibodies– A and B:

  1. Group A- Antigen A and Antibody B.

  2. Group B- Antigen B and Antibody A.

  3. Group AB- Antigen A and B both and no Antibodies

  4. Group O- No Antigens and both A and B Antibodies.

Other than this, there is also a third kind of antigen that is termed as the Rh factor. Based on the presence or absence of this antigen (Rh factor), the four blood groups are classified into eight different blood types:

  1. A positive – Presence of Rh+

  2. A negative- Presence of Rh-

  3. B positive- Presence of Rh+

  4. B negative- Presence of Rh-

  5. AB positive- Presence of Rh+

  6. AB negative- Presence of Rh-

  7. O positive- Presence of Rh+

  8. O negative- Presence of Rh-

 

Conclusion

Here is the chart which predicts the various sorts of blood groups alongside its rhesus factor.

 

Blood type 

A

B

O

AB

Rh-positive 

A+

B+

O+

AB+

Rh-negative 

A-

B-

O-

AB-

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What is a Blood Group Test?

Ans. A simple test that is done to determine the blood group of an individual is called a Blood Group Test. It is also called ABO typing.

Q2. How Many Types of Blood Groups are There?

Ans. There are majorly 4 blood groups, namely 

  1. Blood Group A

  2. Blood Group B

  3. Blood Group AB

  4. Blood Group O.

Q3. What Determines Blood Type?

Ans. The presence of antigen on the surface of the blood cell and the antibodies in the blood plasma can determine the blood groups or blood type of an individual. We inherit these blood types from our parents as each parent gives one allele for blood type to their child. Therefore, a child has a possibility to get the same blood type as one of their parents.

Q4. What’s the Rarest Blood Type?

Ans. As per the records, AB-negative is considered to be the rarest blood type. It is difficult to tell which is the rarest blood type in the world as it is based on the frequency of certain blood types as per the requirement and is widely varied in different parts of the world.