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Introduction

We all should be aware of our blood groups. Blood transfusion plays a very important role in our body. Knowing our blood type helps us to pick appropriate blood for transfusion either during any emergencies or accidents.


Here may be a simple and easy experiment to seek out our blood group sitting reception with the assistance of a blood type Test Kit.


A human blood corpuscle includes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. All these blood cells play a very important role when it comes to  transportation, protection and regulation. Blood groups are mainly determined by the presence or absence of antigens and antibodies on the surface of our red blood cells also known as the Erythrocytes. The transfusion from the incorrect blood type are often life-threatening.


There are basically four major blood groups namely: A, B, AB and O. The blood grouping system was discovered within the year 1901 by Karl Landsteiner- an Austrian biologist and immunologist.

 

Method to Test Blood Group 

Aim

The basic purpose of conducting this experiment is to understand the basic concept of the different ABO blood group system and with the help of this procedure get to know our blood group and type. 

 

Materials Required

  • Toothpicks

  • Blood sample

  • Alcohol Swabs

  • Lancet

  • Clean glass slide

  • Sterile cotton balls

  • Biohazard disposal container

  • Monoclonal Antibodies (Anti-A, B, and D)

 

All these equipment will be readily available in a blood test tool kit. 

 

Procedure

  • First, take a glass side and mark three circles on it after cleaning the slide.

  • Unpack the Monoclonal Antibodies (MAB) kit. Now with the help of a dropper, add the Anti-A, Anti-B and Anti-D in the first, second and third circle respectively in a sequential order.

  • Keep the slide aside safely without disturbing.

  • Now you need to wipe the ring finger with the alcohol swabs and rub gently near the fingertip, where the blood sample will be collected.

  • You need to prick the ring fingertip with the lancet and wipe off the first drop of the blood.

  • As blood starts flowing out, allow it to fall on the three circles of the glass slide by gently pressing the fingertip.

  • We must apply pressure on the pricked part in order to stop the blood flow.Use the cotton ball if required.

  • Mix the blood sample gently with the help of a toothpick and wait for a minute to observe the result.

 

Precautions

Discard the alcohol swabs, lancet, cotton balls and toothpick after their use. Drop all the materials, including the glass slide into the biohazard disposal container after observing the result.


As mentioned above, there are four major blood groups and eight different blood types, collectively called the ABO Blood Group System. The groups are known to be based on the presence or absence of  two specific antigens and antibodies– A and B:

  1. Group A- Antigen A and Antibody B.

  2. Group B- Antigen B and Antibody A.

  3. Group AB- Antigen A and B both and no Antibodies

  4. Group O- No Antigens and both A and B Antibodies.

 

Other than this, there is also a third kind of antigen that is termed as the Rh factor. Based on the presence or absence of this antigen (Rh factor), the four blood groups are classified into eight different blood types:

  1. A positive – Presence of Rh+

  2. A negative- Presence of Rh-

  3. B positive- Presence of Rh+

  4. B negative- Presence of Rh-

  5. AB positive- Presence of Rh+

  6. AB negative- Presence of Rh-

  7. O positive- Presence of Rh+

  8. O negative- Presence of Rh- 

 

Conclusion

Here is the chart which predicts the various sorts of blood groups alongside its rhesus factor. 


Various Sorts of Blood Groups Alongside Its Rhesus Factor.


Blood type 

A

B

O

AB

Rh-positive 

A+

B+

O+

AB+

Rh-negative 

A-

B-

O-

AB-


A test to determine a person's Blood type is known as Blood typing. If you need a Blood transfusion or plan to donate Blood , a test is required. Because not all Blood types are compatible, knowing your Blood Group is crucial. Receiving Blood that isn't compatible with your Blood type can result in a hazardous immunological reaction.


Everyone should be informed of their Blood type. When it comes to receiving a Blood transfusion, it is really crucial. Knowing our Blood Group allows us to choose the right Blood for transfusion in the event of an emergency or an accident.

 

Red Blood cells, white Blood cells, and platelets all make up a human Blood cell. All of these blood cells are essential for transportation, protection, and regulation. The presence or lack of antigens and antibodies on the surface of our red Blood cells, or erythrocytes, determines our Blood Group. A Blood transfusion from the incorrect Blood group might be fatal.

 

The four basic Blood groups are A, B, AB, and O. Karl Landsteiner, an Austrian scientist, and immunologist established the Blood grouping system in 1901.

 

What is the Importance of Blood Typing?

The antigens are both the source of the issue and the solution. Because these compounds cause the body's immune system to react, it's critical to check compatibility before receiving Blood or donating organs. If a person with Blood Group B receives Blood from a person with Blood Group A, the recipient's body will recognise the A-type antigens as alien bodies and reject the transfusion. Because group AB includes and recognises both types of antigens, it can accept Blood from any type, but group O can only accept Blood from type O. The Rh-factor, which is highly immunogenic, follows the same rule. Antibodies developed by Rh-negative moms after having an Rh-positive baby may harm an Rh-positive baby during the second pregnancy, resulting in severe anaemia. As a result, it's not unexpected that numerous documents, from university applications to work ID cards, seek Blood group information.

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FAQs on Blood Group Test

1. What are blood types?

Your blood type is defined by the antigens on the surface of your red blood cells. Antigens are molecules that assist your body to distinguish between its own cells and potentially harmful alien cells. Your body will try to remove a cell if it believes it is foreign.


The ABO blood typing system divides your blood into four categories:

  • The A antigen is found in Type A.

  • The B antigen is present in Type B.

  • Both A and B antigens are present in type AB.

  • Antigens A and B are not present in Type O.

If blood with antigens you don't recognise enters your system, your body will produce antibodies to fight them. Some people, however, can safely accept blood from someone who is not their blood type. Their bodies will not attack the blood they receive as long as it does not include antigens that identify it as alien.

2. What is the description of all blood types?

The description is as follow-

  • O: Because their blood contains no antigens, Type O people can donate blood to anyone. They can, however, only get blood from other type O people (because blood with any antigens is seen as foreign).

  • A: Type A people can donate to another type A people as well as type AB people. Individuals who are type A can only accept blood from other type A and type O people.

  • B: Type B people can donate blood to Type B people and Type AB people. Type B people can only accept blood from other type B people and type O people.

  • AB: Type AB people can only give blood to other AB people, but they can accept blood from anyone.

The Rh Factor Categorises Blood Types Further:

  • Rh-positive: Rh antigens are located on the surface of red blood cells in people who are Rh-positive. Rh-positive people can receive either Rh-positive or Rh-negative blood.

  • Rh-negative: Rh-negative blood does not contain Rh antigens. People who have Rh-negative blood can only receive Rh-negative blood.

3. What is the need for blood typing?

Blood typing is done before a blood transfusion or when a person's blood is classified for donation. Blood typing is a painless and quick way to ensure that you receive the correct blood during surgery or after an injury. Blood clumping, also known as agglutination, can be dangerous if incompatible blood is used.


Blood type is extremely important for pregnant mothers. If the mother is Rh-negative and the father is Rh-positive, the child will most probably be Rh-positive. A drug known as RhoGAM must be given to the mother in these conditions.


This medication will prevent her body from producing antibodies that could attack the baby's blood cells if their blood is mixed during pregnancy, which is common.

4. What is the procedure of blood group tests?

It's necessary to take a blood sample. The ABO typing test is done to determine your blood group, hence it is necessary. Antibodies against type A and B blood are injected into a sample of your blood. Following that, the sample is inspected to see if the blood cells cling to one another. If blood cells stick together, it means one of the blood antibodies has reacted.


The second phase of the procedure is back typing.


Blood that is known to be type A and type B is combined with the liquid part of your blood (serum) that is devoid of cells. One can find Antibodies against type B blood, present in people with type A blood. Anti-A antibodies are present in people with type B blood. Both types of antibodies are present in Type O blood.


Your blood type can be correctly determined using the two techniques outlined above.


Rh typing is done in the same way as ABO typing. The following are the results of blood typing to see if you have Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells:

  • If you have this cell surface protein, you are Rh+ (positive).

  • You're Rh-negative if you don't have this cell surface protein (negative).

5. What are precautions for blood group tests?

The precautions are-

  • After using the alcohol swabs, lancet, cotton balls, and toothpick, discard them. 

  • After seeing the result, place all of the items, including the glass slide, in the biohazard disposal container.

The ABO Blood Group System, as previously stated, consists of four primary blood groups and eight distinct blood types. 

 

The classifications are based on the presence or absence of two antigens and antibodies – A and B:

  1. Group A- Antigen A and Antibody B.

  2. Group B- Antigen B and Antibody A.

  3. Antigens A and B are both present in Group AB, but no antibodies are present.

  4. No antigens and both A and B antibodies in Group O.

6. What’s the Rarest Blood Type?

As per the records, AB-negative is considered to be the rarest blood type. It is difficult to tell which is the rarest blood type in the world as it is based on the frequency of certain blood types as per the requirement and is widely varied in different parts of the world.


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