Blood and Nerve Supply in Human

Nerves and Blood Supply

The human body is made up of thousands ad hundreds of the nerve, these nerves are used to carry stimulation and response back and forth from the brain. The nerves of the human body form two branches of the nervous system first being the central nervous system which includes the nerve structure of the brain and the second is the peripheral nervous system. 


Apart from the nerves, the second important structure of the human body is the blood circulatory system, it is the circulation of blood that ensures that every single cell of the body receives oxygen and various other substances. Together this two complex system works together to form the blood and nerve supply stem in the human body. 


In this article, we will focus on understanding the basic concept of the blood and nerve supply, blood supply of facial nerve, teeth nerve supply, the blood supply of optic nerve, and lastly the blood and nerve supply of the heart.


Nervous System

To understand the blood supply of facial nerve or the teeth nerve supply or in general the complete system of blood and nerve supply, it is very important to develop a basic understanding of the nervous system, in this section we will discuss what is the nervous system and the components of the nervous system are explained. The nerves are the organs of the nervous system they work to carry any physical, mechanical, chemical, or sensory stimulus to the brain and then carry the response of that sensory stimulus back to the target organ. They perform the reception, integration, transmission, and response transmission of any signal provided to them. The nervous system is made of two components, in other words, the nervous system can be divided into two components which are, central nervous system CNS and peripheral nervous system PNS.


The central nervous system contains the brain and the spinal cord. It is important to note that the complete nerve supply of the brain is under the central nervous system, it supplies to the cerebellum, cerebrum and, medulla oblongata of the brain. The nerves of the central nervous are made up of the cell body and the ganglia. To specify it is the cell body that makes up the ganglia. The ganglia are often associated with the viscera in the central nervous system.


The peripheral nervous system is the second component of the nervous system, of the human body. These are the nerves that play the primary function of joining the central nervous system to the various organs. It is important to note that the peripheral nervous system has motor and effector neurons. It contains the cranial and spinal nerves and their associated ganglia. The peripheral nervous system has many subdivisions they are listed as follows, the peripheral nervous system is divided into motor division and sensory division. The motor division is then classified into the autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is further classified into the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems. 

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Teeth Nerve Supply

The tooth blood supply and nerve supply are very important for the proper functioning of the muscles of the jaw. The nerve supply is often medically referred to as the innervation of the teeth. The main nerve of the teeth nerve supply is known as the trigeminal nerve. This is also referred to as the CV nerve of the carnival nerve supply.


The trigeminal nerve, the basic feature of this nerve is the two roots of the nerve. The two roots of the nerve are named the sensory root and the motor root, the sensory root at the very beginning swells and enlarges, they are also referred to as the semilunar roots of the teeth nerve supply. There are three branches of the nerve out of which one is mixed and the rest are sensory nerves, these branches are

  1. The Ophthalmic Branch- It supplies the impulse to the orbit and forehead of the human body.

  2. The Maxillary Branch- The primary role is to supply the impulse to the maxillary sinus and upper jaw teeth

  3. The Mandibular Branch- It is the mixed branch of the nerve it is the nerve that supplies to the tongue and the lower jaw teeth 

Apart from the three branches, the trigeminal nerve is associate with four ganglion structures. These ganglia are as follows

  1. Ciliary ganglion, they are in association with the ophthalmic nerve, there is a filament-like structure associated with it is called the root of filament. They are involved in the reception and transmission of the impulse from the motor roots and the trigeminal nerve.

  2.  Sphenopalatine ganglion is associated with the maxillary nerve, which supplies stimulus to the maxillary sinus and teeth of the upper jaws. 

  3. Optic ganglion and 

  4. Sub maxillary ganglion, both the optic and submaxillary ganglion are attached with the mandibular nerve branch that supplies to the tongue and lower jaw of the teeth nerve supply and the tooth blood supply

The filament shaped structure arises from this ganglion they are termed as the filament of the ganglion they are primarily involved in the reception and transmission of the signal.

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Facial Nerve Supply

The blood supply of the facial nerve also uses the optic nerves of the body, similar to the teeth nerve supply the facial nerve supply is also known as the facial innervation. The optic nerve vascular supply not only plays important role in teeth innervation they have a significant role in the blood supply of the facial nerve, they are the primary nerve involved in the vision. They carry the signalling from the eyes to the brain. 

The facial nerve has the cranial nerve. They have also termed the CN VII nerve of the human body. The facial nerve has the following components.

  1. Motor nerve, they are involved in the facial expression. They are attached to the muscles associated with facial expression. They are also associated with the muscles digastric, stylohyoid muscle, and stapedius muscles of the posterior part of the belly. 

  2. Sensory nerves are associated with the external ear especially to a region around the concha. There are also the presence of special sensory nerves that are often associated with providing the sensation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue through chorda tympani

  3. Parasympathetic nerves of the facial nerve are associated with the nerve supply of blood vessels that are associated with the glands such as the submandibular salivary gland, sublingual salivary glands. They are also associated with the nasal, palatine, and pharyngeal mucous glands. Some of the parasymp[athetic nerve also play important role in the lacrimal glands.

The anatomical course of the blood supply of the facial nerve can be divided into two groups that are named as extracranial nerve supply and intracranial nerve supply. The extracranial nerve supply is associated with the nerve passage through the cranium region of the brain, whereas the intracranial nerve supply is associated with the passage of the nerve in the face and neck region, they are also associated with the regions outside the cranium.

There are four branches of the facial nerve supply they are as follows

  1. Temporal branch

  2. Zygomatic branch

  3. Buccal branch

  4. Cervical branch

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Optic Nerve Vascular Supply

The vascular supply of the optic nerve has been the centre of research in medicinal biology for a long period of time, it refers to the blood supply mechanism to the optic nerve of the body. There are the following blood vessels associated with the optic nerve vascular supply. The blood optic nerve is controlled by these nerves.

  1. The posterior ciliary arteries.

  2. Peripapillary choroidal vessels.

  3. Retinal arterioles

  4. Central retinal vein.

  5. Cordial vein


Blood and Nerve Supply of Heart

The blood supply of the heart is studied under the coronary circulation both arteries and veins and veins are involved in it. The major blood vessels include the pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, aorta, vena cava, and smaller capillaries that surround the myocardium of the heart. The nerve supply of arteries of the heart includes both the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the nervous system. The nerve supply of arteries that are present in the pericardium region is maintained by the phrenic nerve. The sympathetic nervous system of the heart works on the sinoatrial node, which leads to an increase in depolarisation rate, and therefore increasing the heart rate. The parasympathetic system works to decrease or lower the heart rate down. The main control for the nerve supply lies in the medulla oblongata of the brain.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q.1. What is the Meaning of the Nerve Supply of Blood Vessels?

Ans: The nerve supply of blood vessels refers to the parasympathetic control of nerves on the blood vessel of the body to provide an appropriate response to the body stimulus. The most common example of it is the blood and nerve supply of the heart.

Q.2. What are the Two Main Components of the Autonomic Nervous System?

Ans: The two main components of ANS are the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems of the body. The parasympathetic regulates activity like stimulating digestion, activating metabolism, whereas the sympathetic controls the localized and reflex adjustments of systems like the cardiovascular system.