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Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

The two main parts of the nervous system of bilateral animals are the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The peripheral nervous system consists of the ganglia and nerves outside of the spinal cord and brain. This nervous system has two main parts, which are the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system was previously called the vegetative nervous system. 

It is the subsystem of the peripheral nervous system to supply smooth glands and muscle. It influences the functions of the internal organs of the animal body. The autonomic nervous system controls several internal body processes such as blood pressure, digestion, body temperature, urination, breathing rates, sexual arousal, etc. 


Anatomy of Autonomic Nervous System

The Autonomic Nervous System is one of the main two parts of the peripheral nervous system, which supplies the body’s internal organs such as the heart, stomach, liver, bladder, intestine, kidneys, lungs, digestive glands etc. This nervous system has two subsystems, which are the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). 

When the ANS receives information about the external environment on the body, it responds through the sympathetic nervous system (by stimulating body processes) or the parasympathetic nervous system (by inhibiting the body processes). Generally, SNS neurons prepare the body to react to something. Neurons within the PNS regulate bodily functions. To know more about anatomy, you can read any autonomic nervous system ppt.


Autonomic Nervous System Function

The autonomic nervous system controls several internal body processes such as respiratory rate, heart rate, digestion, pupillary response, blood pressure, body temperature, urination, digestion, sexual arousal, metabolism, etc. All these body processes are controlled by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) for the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) or both of them. Some organs are affected oppositely by the SNS and the PNS. For example, the SNS increases blood pressure, and the PNS decreases it. 

These two subsystems work together and balance the body processes so that the body can respond to different situations properly. Generally, the SNS controls the heart rate, blood pressure, muscular strength, pupillary response, sweat, digestion, and urination. On the other hand, the PNS controls heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion. By observing the autonomic nervous system diagram, you can learn more about the function of the ANS.


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Autonomic Disorders

Nervous disorders that result from the damage of the autonomic nerves or the parts of the ANS are called autonomic disorders. It affects the internal body processes. There are several causes of autonomic disorders. The common causes are diabetes, ageing, peripheral nervous disorders, Parkinson's disease, etc. Other less common causes are autonomic neuropathy, pure autonomic failure, multiple system atrophy, spinal cord disorders, drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system, nerve injuries, etc. Some autonomic disorders are orthostatic hypertension, postprandial hypotension, multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure, afferent baroreflex failure, familial dysautonomia, etc. 


Symptoms of Autonomic Disorders

Now, we are going to discuss the symptoms of autonomic disorders. Some general symptoms are difficulty in emptying the bladder, dizziness or lightheadedness, disturbing pains, erectile dysfunction, fatigue and inertia, faintness, gastrointestinal symptoms, lack of pupillary response, hypotension, lack of sweat, numbness, tingling, tachycardia, severe anxiety and depression, urinary incontinence, etc. Apart from these, there are many other symptoms of autonomic disorders noticeable in the animal body.


Diagnosis and Treatment of Autonomic Disorders

Autonomic disorders should be treated seriously. Otherwise, it can lead to paralysis or permanent nervous disorders. If you face any symptoms of the autonomic disorder, you must visit a doctor as early as possible. Generally, autonomic disorders are detected through doctor's evolution, electrocardiography, sweat testing, and other tastes of the internal body processes. After the diagnosis of the disease, the treatment processes are different for different symptoms. 

Through this article, students will be able to hold a strong grasp over the topics such as the anatomy of the autonomic nervous system, autonomic nervous system function, autonomic nervous system diagram in detail.


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FAQs on Autonomic Nervous System

1. What is the autonomic nervous system?

Ans: The two main parts of the nervous system of bilateral animals are the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The PNS has two main parts, which are the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is the subsystem of the peripheral nervous system to supply smooth glands and muscle. It influences the functions of the internal organs of the animal body. The autonomic nervous system controls several internal body processes such as blood pressure, digestion, body temperature, urination, breathing rates, sexual arousal, etc. 

This nervous system has two subsystems- the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. When the ANS receives information about the external environment on the body, it responds through the sympathetic nervous system or the parasympathetic nervous system. You can go through any autonomic nervous system ppt to know better about the anatomy of the autonomic nervous system, autonomic nervous system function, and autonomic nervous system diagram.

2. What are autonomic disorders?

Ans: Nervous disorders that result from the damage of the autonomic nerves or the parts of the ANS are called autonomic disorders. There are several causes of autonomic disorders. The common causes are diabetes, ageing, peripheral nervous orders, Parkinson's disease, drugs acting on autonomic nervous systems, etc. Some autonomic disorders are orthostatic hypertension, postprandial hypotension, multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure, afferent baroreflex failure, familial dysautonomia, etc. 

Some general symptoms are dizziness or lightheadedness, disturbing pains, erectile dysfunction, faintness, lack of pupillary response, hypotension, lack of sweat, numbness and tingling, severe anxiety, urinary incontinence, etc. Autonomic disorders should be treated seriously. Otherwise, it can lead to paralysis or permanent nervous disorders. 

3.What are the functions of the autonomic nervous system?

Ans: The function of The autonomic nervous system is to control internal body processes such as blood pressure, digestion, body temperature, urination, breathing rates, sexual arousal, etc. 


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