Indian economy is an agrarian economy, a reason that makes biofertilizers an essential need for the Indian farmers. Though most of our agricultural activities are dependent on monsoon, the use of a good biofertilizer can yield a better crop to the farmers, and increase the fertility of the soil. Let’s have a look at biofertilizers definition:

Biofertilizers Definition

Biofertilizers are products that contain microorganisms essential for soil fertility and plant growth when added to the soil.

What is Biofertilizer?

Biofertilizers consist of microbes and living bacteria that promote the fertility of the soil and the growth of plants. These microbes support the process of nitrogen fixation to produce the components essential for the plant’s growth.

Types of Biofertilizers

Some important types of biofertilizers are as follows:

Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria

The Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria like Rhizobium get food and shelter from the plants and provide them with fixed nitrogen in return.

A Loose Association of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria

Some bacteria aren’t related directly with the plants but live around them—E.g. A nitrogen-fixing bacterium called Azospirillum.

Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria

There are many Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria like liverworts, cycad roots, the bacteria released by fern plant decay, etc.

Free-Living Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria

Free-living bacteria are found in soil, and they also perform nitrogen fixation. These include clostridium, azotobacter, and bacillus polymyxin.

Components of Biofertilizers

The components of a biofertilizer are:

Bio Compost

It is eco-friendly and is produced from waste products coming from the sugar industries. It also includes bacteria, fungi, and some plants.


This eco-friendly non-pathogenic product is useful for many crops and plants, as it plays the role of a productive destroyer against the items that are harmful to the crop.


It plays an important role in atmospheric nitrogen fixation and protects the plant roots from pathogens in the soil.


To settle the exact level of need for nitrogen for a plant, and to determine the nitrogen level of the soil, the phosphorus fertilizers are very helpful.


Known for quickly improving the soil fertility, these are probably the most eco-friendly fertilizers that contain vitamins, sulfur, hormones, organic carbon, and antibiotics required for the growth of the plant.

Importance of Biofertilizers

There are various uses of biofertilizers, that proves its importance. They include – to improve the soil quality, protect the plants from pathogens, avoid environmental pollution, destruction of harmful substances present in the soil, etc. Thus, biofertilizers are very important.

Applications of biofertilizers

These are some important applications of biofertilizers:

Seedling Root Dip

Used for rice crops, the seedlings are planted in a waterbed for 8 to 10 hours, in this method.

Seed Treatment

In this process, the seeds are dipped in nitrogen-phosphorus mixed fertilizers. After drying them, they are planted as early as possible.

Soil Treatment

The mixture of biofertilizers and compost fertilizers is kept overnight and spread over the soil the next day. This treatment takes place before sowing the seeds.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are Biofertilizers?

Biofertilizers are the fertilizers that contain microorganisms that promote the fertility of the soil and provide a better crop yield when they are added to the soil.

2. How can Biofertilizers Prevent Pollution?

Biofertilizers only contain some bacteria, plants, and other biological components that are not at all harmful to the environment. Thus, they can help to reduce pollution (especially soil pollution) caused by agricultural activities.

3. Why are Biofertilizers more Preferable than the Chemical Fertilizers?

Biofertilizers are prefered than the chemical fertilizers because they do not contain any harmful chemicals that will increase pollution. They provide many benefits unlike chemical fertilizers, whose overuse can, in turn, reduce the fertility of the land.

4. How are Biofertilizers Beneficial than Chemical Fertilizers?

The comparison of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers shows that biofertilizers are cheaper and more cost-effective than chemical fertilizers. Also, they can provide a double benefit by increasing land fertility and providing a better crop yield, which may not be possible in the case of chemical fertilizers. Thus, biofertilizers are more beneficial than chemical fertilizers.

5. Why Should we use Biofertilizers?

Biofertilizers should be used because they provide a dual benefit of increased soil fertility along with a better crop.

6. Are Biofertilizers Costly?

No, biofertilizers are very cost-effective and affordable for farmers. Some components of biofertilizers like vermicompost can even be made on your own.

7. What are some Microorganisms that are Present in the Biofertilizers?

Some microorganisms present in the biofertilizers are rhizobium, azotobacter, clostridium, and azospirillum.