The term “biodiversity” refers to the types or variety of life present on the earth surface. The earth is surrounded by various types of living organisms, including both zooplankton and phytoplankton. Biodiversity term was coined by Thomas Lovejoy in 1985. There is an immense variety of organisms present in biodiversity and all organisms are dependent on each other. The number of organisms of individual species varies from place to place depending on various atmospheric and environmental factors. These are the major factors which determine the density of an organism in any particular area. This shows the richness of biodiversity in any particular area.
Along with ecological significance, it also has economical significance. As biodiversity is a source of food, housing, fuel, clothing and any more sources. Some of the famous biodiversity areas are also declared as tourist places for economical benefits.
Protecting and managing biodiversity resources is essential in order to maintain equality in an organism to secure them for future generations so that they can spend their life in a very healthy way. Conservation of biodiversity is important as people have destroyed majority biodiversity and if we continue this in the same way, our future generations will pay for this loss.
Goals of Biodiversity Conservation
There are various objectives behind the conservation of biodiversity, some of the important objectives are listed below:
To preserve different varieties of species present in the ecosystem.
For proper flow of the food chain and food web.
To maintain the proper mixture of air in the atmosphere, as release of oxygen, carbon dioxide and many more gases are totally dependent on the density of biodiversity.
To preserve resources like wood, coal, etc for the future generation.
To balance equality in both zooplanktons and phytoplanktons.
Method Used For Biodiversity Conservation
As there are innumerable varieties of living organisms existing in an ecosystem, depending on their existence and density they are conserved by various methods. Some of these methods are discussed below:
In-situ Conservation: In in-situ type conservation species are being conserved in their natural surroundings. Everything in in-situ conservation is maintained as per natural habitat of an organism. There are so many positive sides of in-situ conservation and some of their advantages are discussed below.
1. It does not require so many expenses on maintenance, so easy to conserve species of different varieties.
2. Large numbers of species can be conserved in one area as they have natural surroundings.
3. Areas which are protected under in-situ conservation are known as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves.
Types of In-Situ Conservation:
Mainly there are three types of in situ conservation, they are:
Wildlife Sanctuaries: These are the environmental areas where only wildlife can be kept by providing them with natural habitat. Some of the human activities are allowed in this region like timber harvesting, cultivation of crops, collection of wood by people who are living near to that area and along with that tourist activities are also allowed in this area. All these activities are allowed only when they are not creating any hindrance in the conservation process.
Some of the examples of wildlife sanctuaries are Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand, Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan, Bandipur National Park, Karnataka, Keoladeo Ghana National Park – Bharatpur, Rajasthan, Nagarhole National Park, Karnataka, Sariska National Park, Rajasthan, etc.
National Park: It is mainly a small area which is maintained and controlled by the government. In this region, human activities like cultivation, forestry, grazing, etc are strictly prohibited as these activities will create disturbances.
Some of the examples of national parks are Kanha National Park, Bandhavgarh National Park, Kaziranga National Park, Nagarhole National Park, Ranthambore National Park, Periyar National Park, Gir National Park, Sundarbans National Park, etc.
Ex-Situ Conservation: Under this conservation process endangered species are being conserved to save them from extinction. In this conservation, artificial surrounding is being prepared depending on the organism habitat. Some examples of ex-situ conservation are zoos, nurseries, botanical gardens (for endangered plants), gene banks( for the preservation of seeds of any particular gene), etc. In this type of conservation competition among different organisms is usually avoided.
Benefits of Ex-Situ Conservation
1. There is very less competition between organisms.
2. Various new techniques are being used to conserve endangered species.
3. Species who breed in ex-situ conservation can be reintroduced in the wild to increase their population in the ecosystem.
Strategies Needed For Conservation of Biodiversity
There are so many strategies which can be implemented for biodiversity conservation. Some of the major strategies are discussed below:
1. Species which are endangered should be conserved first as they are at high risk of extinction.
2. Poaching and hunting should be restricted to avoid a tremendous decrease in the number of organisms.
3. Pollution should be reduced so that animals are not affected by this.
4. Deforestation should be stopped and strict action should be taken against who are practising this for their self-benefit.
5. Various national parks and wildlife sanctuaries should be set up to preserve organisms.
6. Various environmental laws should be implemented to preserve biodiversity.
7. Endangered species should be given extra care and safe environmental conditions.
8. Ecosystems which are highly endangered should be given higher priorities.
9. Resources should be consumed or utilised very carefully.
10. Public awareness programmes should be launched for spreading the importance of ecosystems among human beings.
Reason Behind Conservation of Biodiversity:
Stability in an ecosystem is the reason behind rich biodiversity. More the density of organisms of different species more will be the stability in the ecosystem. All of us are directly or indirectly dependent on biodiversity for our needs. If we keep destroying biodiversity in a similar way than one day our future generation is going to pay for this loss.
There are so many reasons including the exploitation of ecosystems: over-exploitation of resources, climatic changes, pollution, invasive exotic species, diseases, hunting, etc. Because of these factors, organisms lose their habitats which finally lead to the extinction of an organism.