Agriculture of practice of cultivating plants and other crops to maintain livelihood and food. Based on the nature of cultivation it is of various types and of various nature depending on weather also. Main purpose of cultivation is providing food but apart from that it helps us in various ways like increasing the economy, providing employment. Due to these all reasons agriculture is the backbone of our economic system as 70% of the population is involved in the agriculture field.
Agriculture is not a single step process, it needs a lot of knowledge along with physical and mechanical practice. Large extent of agriculture practice needs electronic vehicles, also threshers, tractors, etc. By using all these agriculture processes become a little easier than earlier.
As agriculture is a several steps process; major steps for agriculture practice are discussed below:
Soil needs to be in fine texture for proper growth of plants and crops. So loosening of soil can be done with the help of tractors or by physical methods.
Proper sowing of seeds or platelets is must for proper growth of crops or plants. Proper gaps should be maintained while sowing seeds so that they can get proper nutrients and minerals. There are several methods by which seeds can be shown like:
Traditional Methods: In this method funnels are being used to sow the seeds in a proper manner. During this process the funnel is filled with seeds and seeds are spreaded all over the field through sharp ends as these ends enter the soil by which they are placed into the soil.
Dibbling Method: In this process holes are made in the seedbeds and seeds are placed into those holes and after that these seedbeds are covered. The one thing which really matters is the depth of holes. A proper instrument called a dibbler is there for the dibbling process.
Broadcasting Method: In this process seeds are scattered either by mechanically or manually on the seed beds. When it is on a small scale we use manual methods and when it is on large scale we use mechanical broadcasters for ploughing seeds.
Crops and plants need proper irrigation as too much irrigation practice can block their roots propers which will prevent absorption of nutrients and minerals from soil. So proper irrigation should be given to plants. Some of the sources of irrigation are well, tube well, pond, rivers, canals, dams, etc.
There are various methods of irrigation:
Traditional Methods: During traditional methods of irrigation cattles and human labour are used. This irrigation method is cheaper than other irrigation methods. Diesel pumps are also used for irrigation.
Modern Method of Irrigation: One of most known modern methods of irrigation is the sprinkler method. This method is mostly used where land is uneven and sufficient underground water level is not available for irrigation.
Mechanism of Sprinkler Method: In this method perpendicular pipes are being used which have rotating nozzles on top and they are joined to the main pipe on a regular interval. By this mechanism a proper amount of water is given to crops on a regular basis. They are most commonly used in plantations of coffee, lawns, etc.
Plants need proper nutrients and minerals for this they should be given time to time manure and fertilizers by which they can easily grasp important nutrients and minerals. Manure is considered more useful for crops as they are eco friendly in nature whereas fertilisers are made up of various harmful chemicals which disturbs fertility of soil and under ground level.
Weeds are undesirable plants which can destroy useful crops. So the process by which weeds are removed are called weeding. Removal of weeds are important as they compete with crops for light, food, water, minerals and nutrients. Along with that they interfere in the harvesting process and can also be harmful for animals and human beings.
Methods by which weeds can be removed are:
Uprooting of weeds with the help of instruments like khurpi.
By taking help of weedicides like 2, 4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D), Naphthalene acetic acid, and Atrazine. As they directly kill the weeds.
Cutting down of crops is known as harvesting. This process on a large scale needs good harvesters which can automatically harvest the crops in large scale whereas small scale harvesting can be done manually by using sickle. Crops are usually harvested after 3-4 months of the sowing process. There are so many rituals which are performed by farmers while harvesting crops. Once harvesting is done chaff is separated from grain and these processes are done by threshing ( separating chaff from grains ) and winnowing method ( separation of husk from the seeds by blowing air on crops ). For large scale harvesting there is a special machine for both threshing and winnowing process.
Keeping grains or produce safe from rats, insects, microorganisms and moisture. For all amounts, storage warehouses are there.
1. What are the Steps by Which we can Protect Grains From Insects and Other Microorganisms?
Ans. Some of the precautions for protecting grains are listed below:
We should keep dried neem leaves in crops to protect them from harmful organisms.
We can also keep silos and grains for prevention at large scale.
Large amounts of grains should be kept in godowns.
2. Why is Loosening of Soil Important?
Ans. The process by which soil is converted into loose form is called tilling or ploughing process. During this process big clumps of soil are converted into small clumps. Loosening is important because of following reasons:
It allows plants to get easy access to water and minerals and along with that they can breathe easily.
In loose soil microbes and earthworms can be easily grown as they increase fertility of soil.
Nutrient-rich soil comes to the top and can be used by plants.