We all know that the food we eat is grown by the farmers through the practice of farming called agriculture. But do you know what all agriculture comprises? Agriculture includes farm-related activities such as the cultivation of plants, producing food and cash crops, domestication of animals, fisheries, horticulture, and much more. It plays a primary role in India's growth and employs a large number of people. Agriculture is a primary source of living for the people living in rural areas of India. It is not only important for growing food but also for other products such as fuels, fibres, and other raw materials, such as wool, silk, resins, biofuels, and bamboo.
The most important significance of agriculture is that it helps in the production of food for people. It provides us with vegetables, fruits, meat, and oils which help us in living a healthy life.
Implements in the agricultural industry are referred to as the tools used to make the task simpler and easier. To build an efficient and productive environment, agricultural activities in the modern days involve a different variety of tools such as drills, hoe, plow, sickle, etc. The world today seems no pace of progress in the agricultural field without the use of the implements that are essentially required to carry out these practices. The use of the tools is extremely evident in the countries, especially where the population is mainly dependent on farming for earning their livelihood. Iit is also to be mentioned that different countries for both organic and non–organic farming practices remain dependent on the use of diverse arrays of equipment. The development of science and technology has influenced the farming activities of the world to a large extent and a brief discussion about the same is done here to help make a transparent vision through the topic.
In modern scientific agricultural practices, implements hold a significant space as without them the competitive world cannot fulfill the rising demand of individual human beings. There are a lot of implements that are used in farming practices today especially in the countries where agriculture is considered to be the most common and popular means of earning, including seed drills, cultivators, harrows, models of hoes, pickage, spade, sickle, kauri, etc. The implements are in high demand and used in large numbers because the practices involved in the farming process are difficult and involve heavy labor as well as a variety of procedures that are nearly impossible to do and complete by bare hand. Hence, tools and machinery have become a must to complete the activities within a relatively short period. The development and excessive use of such small machines or tools reached a peak point after the period of the industrial revolution. This era witnessed a great leap of agricultural practices with the amalgamation of easy farming methods and complicated machines, one complemented by the other. From this time onwards, the use of hands for harvesting grains with the help of sharp blades is replaced by machines. The concept of using implements was revolutionized with the emergence of the tractor that was invented during the end of the 19th century.
However, the previous century was evident in the use of technological machines in agricultural fields. It is found that modern farmers are now able to complete the same task in a relatively easy manner and short time as compared to the earlier days. Moreover, not only the range of products has increased, but the physical labour that the farmers used to invest in has also decreased significantly.
Soil cultivation implements
The discussion of agricultural implements cannot be ended without the mention of agricultural technology. These are the tools or systems that are widely used in the current era in the field of agriculture to make the works easier and complete every step of the farming process without any inconvenience.
There are different types of implements used in the agricultural industry. The important ones are mentioned and discussed in brief below:
a) Irrigation Machinery: This includes the pump units as well as the central pivot irrigation systems. These are helpful in the process of watering the plants according to their requirement and at the appropriate level.
b) Soil Cultivation Implements: The ploughing of soil that makes it ready for the cultivation facilities are done by these tools or machines. Drag, spike, disk harrows are some of the examples of this type of implements.
c) Planting Machines: Once the cultivation of the soil is done, the planting of the saplings and seeds are done in the field with the help of different kinds of planting machines. To achieve this,; transplanting equipment, seed drills, air seeders, precision drills, and broadcast seeders are found to be immensely helpful.
d) Harvesting Implements: As the name suggests, these machines are useful in the process of harvesting ripened and matured crops in the field. Pickers, diggers, trailers are some of the examples of these types of machines.
e) Miscellaneous: Apart from the above-mentioned tools and machines, there are also several other kinds of equipment that are found to be helpful in the completion of the harvesting process including shredding, loading, and haymaking, etc.
The agricultural implements do not necessarily equate to only the agricultural implements that are mentioned above. There are several other tools as well that help in the agricultural practices and make tasks more efficient and productive. A large number of tools are used by the farmers in the present day for cultivation. This list includes tools such as seed drill, cultivator, hoe, plough, etc. In addition to this, there are also an extensive number of traditional tools that are also used in modern-day practices because of their easy handling, and availability. Axe, spade, sickle, etc. are some of the traditional implements that are used even in modern-day agricultural practices. These tools are considered to promote in time-intensive and labor-consuming agricultural practices.
With agriculture, farmers grow various kinds of crops which we eat in daily life. Some of these crops are seasonal and some of them are grown all around the year. The type of crop which is to be grown largely depends on the monsoon. The crops in India are mainly divided on the basis of the growing season. The crops are divided into Kharif crops and Rabi crops.
Kharif crops: These are grown during the summer or monsoon season in India. The main months in which these crops are grown are April to October or November. Some Kharif crops include Jowar, mung daal, Peanut, bajra, rice, jute, cotton, etc.
Rabi crops: These crops are grown in winter, autumn and then harvested in summer. The months of the Rabi crop start from November and end in April or May. The major Rabi crops grown in India include wheat, barley, mustard, tea, etc.
Based on the purpose for which the crops are cultivated, they are classified as food crops and cash crops.
Food Crops: A food crop is any cultivated plant that is harvested to be consumed by both human beings and animals. The plants which are grown to produce crops are known as crop plants. Main food crops include cereals, pulses and oilseeds and vegetables.
Cereals: Cereals like wheat and paddy provide us with starch, fibre, and minerals. They also give us proteins.
Oilseeds: The seeds which are a source of oils are called oilseeds. Important oil seeds are mustard, groundnut sesame soybean sunflower, and so on.
Vegetables: Vegetables are soft seasonal and herbaceous plants. They give nutrients and are rich in minerals, vitamins, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Cash Crops: Cash crops are produced to further sell the produce rather than consumption; these are exported to foreign countries. These crops are grown in large estates called plantations coffee, tea, tobacco, rubber coat, and sugarcane are other important cash crops.
Spices: India produces a wide range of spices and spices products such as pepper, cardamom, cinnamon, ginger, turmeric, chilli, coriander, cumin, garlic mustard, and so on.
Rubber: Rubber plantation in India started in 1895 in the hills of Kerala rubber is produced from the latex of different plants but majorly rubber plant is used to produce it.
Fibre-yielding Crops: Fibre-yielding crops are the ones that produce fibers and are used for manufacturing fiber goods. These crops include jute, cotton, milkweed.
Medicinal Plants: India produces numerous medical and herbal plants such as amla, Brahmi, Ashok, neem, sandalwood, tulsi, aloe vera, and many more.
Sugarcane: India is the main producer of sugarcane. It needs a temperature from 20°C to 30° C. The supply of water should be regular during the period of growth.
Agricultural implements hold a significant space in modern scientific agricultural practices. Drag, spike, disk harrows are some of the examples of implements. For cultivation purpose, an extensive range of tools is used nowadays for the cultivation process. Harvesting implements, planting machines, soil cultivation implements, and irrigation machinery are some of the important agricultural tools.
1. What are the other branches of agriculture?
The Other branches of agriculture are horticulture, animal husbandry, sericulture, apiculture, and pisciculture.
Horticulture is a branch of agriculture that focuses on growing plant herbs and decorative flowers and plants.
The process of rearing animals for a specific purpose is called domestication. Taking care of these such as their food, shelter, and breeding along with the in of animals on a large scale is known as animal husbandry.
The rearing of bees for the commercial production of honey is called apiculture.
Sericulture refers to the process of breeding and management of silkworms for the production of silk.
Fish farming or pisciculture involves raising fish for commercial purposes.
2. What is a white revolution in agriculture?
Operation Flood commonly referred to as 'White Revolution' covers all its three phases from 1970 to 1996 in India. This project transformed India from a milk deficient country to the world's largest milk producer in 1998. The main architect of the successful project was Dr. Varghese Kurien. The program was started by the National Dairy development board.
3. What are draught animals and how are they used in agriculture?
Animals that are used to carry labour to fields such as carting, tilling and employing are called draught animals. Animals have been used as a means of transportation since ancient times. We have all seen bullock carts, horses carts, and camel carts. Elephant donkeys and horses also help in carrying load and transportation goods from one place to another. Bullocks are also used by farmers in ploughing and irrigating the field. In desert areas, the main form of transportation of human beings and goods is the camel.
4. What kind of agricultural implements are used by Indian farmers?
The agriculture implements used by farmers of India are outdated and primitive. They use bullock carts for ploughing and tilling the land. They use primitive means of implements because of financial conditions. Modern machinery like tractors, sprinklers are seldomly used by Indian farmers. Indian farmers do subsistence farming that is purely for consumption basis. Only a few farmers cultivate cash crops which give them good returns. Indian farmers don't have a lot of money, so they are not able to use modern techniques in agriculture.
5. What are the various schemes introduced by the government for the welfare of agriculture and farmers?
National Mission For Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY)
Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)
Gramin Bhandaran Yojna
Livestock Insurance Scheme
The scheme on Fisheries Training and Extension