Accessory Organs

Human Reproductive System Accessory organs

An organ is a set of tissues that perform similar functions. Many organs coexist in organ systems, and both plant and animal life depend on them. The tissues of an organ can be divided into two groups: parenchyma, which is unique to (or at least archetypal to) the organ and performs the organ's specialized function, and stroma, which performs supporting structural, connective, or ancillary functions.

Examples of Organs: Brain. Kidney, heart, liver, lungs, etc.


Organ System 

An organ system, also known as a biological system or body system, is made up of two or more organs that work together to perform a particular body function. Organ systems have a lot of variation in their roles. The hypothalamus, for example, is a shared organ that controls both the nervous and endocrine systems. As a result, the neuroendocrine system is formed by combining the two systems and studying them together.

Differentiation of shoot and root organ systems is a common plant organ system designation. The shoot organ system includes all portions of the plant that are above ground (in non-epiphytes), as well as the functionally distinct leaf and flower organs.

Organs are one of the four levels of organization found in multicellular organisms. Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems make up an organism, from the simplest to the most complex. A living organism's building block in the cell, which is the most basic level of organization. Tissues come after that. Tissues are collections of cells of a common structure and purpose that work together. Muscle, epithelial, connective, and nervous tissue are the four types of tissues found in the human body. Organs, as previously mentioned, are collections of tissues that collaborate to perform a specific purpose. Organ systems are the highest degree of bodily organization in an organism. They are made up of groups of organs that collaborate to perform a specific purpose. The digestive system, for example, consists of organs such as the oesophagus, liver, small intestine, and large intestine, all of which play a role in food digestion.


Accessory Organs

The digestive organs are those that enable food to move through. Secretions and enzymes break down food into nutrients that are added by accessory organs. Organs that secrete substances needed for the chemical digestion of food but do not move food as it is digested are known as accessory organs of digestion. The gallbladder and pancreas, in addition to the liver, are the most important digestive accessory organs. These organs secrete or store substances that are needed for digestion in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine and where the majority of chemical digestion occurs. The salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and gall bladder are all examples of accessory organs. Hormones control the secretions of the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder in response to dietary intake.


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Following are the accessory organs:


Liver 

It is the body's largest gland. The liver is divided into two major lobes and two smaller lobes on the outside. The liver's functional units are lobules with sinusoids that bring blood from the periphery to the lobule's central vein.

Blood comes into the liver from two places. The popular hepatic artery, a branch of the celiac trunk from the abdominal aorta, brings oxygenated blood to the liver. The hepatic portal vein transports nutrient-rich blood from the digestive tract to the liver. The liver performs a wide range of functions, many of which are essential to life. The phagocytic Kupffer cells that line the sinusoids are responsible for blood cleansing, while hepatocytes perform the majority of the functions assigned to the liver.


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Following are the Functions of the Liver:

  • Secretion 

  • Bile salt synthesis

  • Plasma protein synthesis

  • Storing

  • Purification

  • Excrement

  • Metabolism of carbohydrate

  • Metabolism of lipids

  • Protein synthesis

  • Filtration


Gallbladder

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac connected to the liver's visceral surface by the cystic duct. The gallbladder's primary purpose is to act as a bile storage reservoir. Bile is a yellowish-green substance secreted by the cells of the liver. Air, bile salts, bile pigments, and cholesterol are the key components of bile. Bile salts aid in the digestion and absorption of fats by acting as emulsifiers. Cholesterol and bile pigments are excreted in the bile as a result of haemoglobin breakdown.


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Pancreas

Both endocrine and exocrine functions are performed by the pancreas. The islets of Langerhans, which secrete the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood, make up the endocrine component. The exocrine component of the gland is the most important element. It is made up of pancreatic acinar cells that secrete digestive enzymes into tiny ducts that connect the cells. Trypsin, peptidase, and lipase are pancreatic enzymes. The hormones secretin and cholecystokinin regulate pancreatic secretions.


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Accessory Reproductive Organs

Accessory organs refer to the internal organs of the reproductive system. They're made up of a single layer of epithelial cells encased in a basement membrane. The cuticle lines the lumen. The reproductive system comprises the main reproductive organs, such as the ovaries and testes, as well as accessory reproductive organs. Accessory female organs include the uterus, oviduct, breasts, and vaginal canal. The mammary gland is considered accessory reproductive organs in females which is located in the breasts of females.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Difference Between A Major Organ and an Accessory Organ of Digestion?

Ans. Large insoluble food molecules are broken down into small water-soluble food molecules during digestion, allowing them to be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. These smaller substances are ingested into the bloodstream by certain species through the small intestine. Organs that secrete substances needed for the chemical digestion of food but do not move food as it is digested are known as accessory organs of digestion. The gallbladder and pancreas, in addition to the liver, are the most important digestive accessory organs.

2. What are Accessory Sex Organs?

Ans. Accessory organs refer to the internal organs of a man's reproductive system. The vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands are all part of the vas deferens system. Vas deferens: Transports mature sperm to the urethra before ejaculation. The reproductive system comprises the main reproductive organs, such as the ovaries and testes, as well as accessory organs. The uterus, oviduct, breasts, and vagina are all parts of the female reproductive system. For accessory sex organs, the male has the penis and scrotum.