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D and F Block Elements Class 12 Notes CBSE Chemistry Chapter 8 [Free PDF Download]


Class 12 Chemistry Revision Notes for Chapter 8 - The d and f Block Elements - Free PDF Download

The middle layer present in the periodic table is filled with the d block elements. The inner d orbits of group 3 to 13 are progressively filled. On the other side, the f block elements are found outside and at the bottom of the periodic table. In these elements, the 5f and 4f orbitals are progressively filled. The 3 series of transition elements are recognised by the filling of 3d, 4d, and 5d orbitals. They hold a high boiling and melting point. The metallic properties that are exhibited by the transition elements are given as follows:

  • Electrical conductivity

  • Thermal conductivity

  • Malleability

  • Metallic character

  • High tensile strength

  • Ductility

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Chemistry Class 12 Revision Notes for Chapter 8 - The d and f Block Elements

The notes of chapter 8 chemistry class 12 are great for the students who are looking to learn the periodic table in a simple manner. In other terms, you will learn that the periodic table is only one part of Chemistry. While it can scare students easily, this chapter will change that most definitely. Consequently, it also enables the students to learn about it in groups. So, the chapter will only focus on the d-block and f-block elements of the table. Therefore, the plus two chemistry d and f block elements notes make your study easier.

Sub-topics covered Under the d and f Block Elements

The sub-topics that are covered under the d block and f block elements are listed below:

  • Electronic configuration of the d-block elements - This chapter makes it easier to recollect the numerous configurations and properties of the elements that belong to the same group

  • Position in the Periodic Table - Here, students will learn about the periodic table position of an element and its nature and properties

  • Some Applications of d-block and f-block elements - It will explain the students about the numerous applications of d-block and f block elements

  • Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements - This complete section discusses the important compounds of transition elements, as well as their properties 

  • The Actinoids - Here, the students will learn about the new set of elements which are not-so-known through this unit, that are Actinoids

  • The Lanthanide - This section explains the detail information of hidden element of the lanthanide

  • General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-block) - It also gives a closer look at various properties of the transition elements

Position in the Periodic Table

The d block and f block elements in the groups ranging from 3 to 11 are also known respectively as the transition elements and inner transition elements. The 4f and 5f orbitals of f-block elements reside steadily in the later of two long periods. On this basis, they are differentiated in lanthanides and actinides. The d block elements, which are called transition elements, contain partially filled (n-1) d-orbitals. The periodic table position of an element is highly reflective of its nature and properties.

Topics of d and f Block Elements

Let us look at some of the topics that are covered in the revision notes of f and d block elements:

  • Definition of d and f block elements

  • Electronic Configuration

  • Metallic character

  • Ionic radii

  • Melting point

  • Oxidation state

  • Catalytic property

  • Complex formation

  • Compounds of transitional elements

  • Mercury Chlorides

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Did you ever have a feeling when you arrived in the exam, and you cannot remember anything from the previous topics which you have gone through? Well, that is not an uncommon thing. The exam room stress can have that effect, and especially if you have been relying on the last minute cramming to get by. Writing study notes on your own while preparing for the topics, and using these to revise or recall is a very useful and important thing in ensuring that you can remember everything when faced with that in your final exam.

Benefits of Early Revision

If you start your preparation earlier, you can be benefitted as follows:

Less Stress

There is no better feeling for the students other than being prepared for upcoming exams, especially when the students know they have put the work in. Starting the revision sooner rather than later means much less anxiety and stress, plus it allows the students to study at their own pace rather than exhausting themselves with all-nighters a week before the day comes.

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Key Points on d and f Block Elements

The following are the important points and concepts that are related to the chapter on d and f Block Elements: 

  • D Block Elements

  • General Properties of D-Block Elements

  • Important Alloys

  • F Block Elements

  • Lanthanide Contraction

Other Related Links

The following is a list of links that take you to the important revision notes for Class 12 Chemistry chapter-wise revision notes by our expert teachers. 

Vedantu provides meticulously curated revision notes for students to get them equipped with all the important information they may need to appear for their tests. This is a similar article on revision notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8, which is on d and f Block Elements. We recommend that students use this article to revise the important points in the chapter as well as visit the provided links to other chapters and read them through to get a hold of all the important concepts in chapters included in the Class 12 Chemistry syllabus.

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FAQs on D and F Block Elements Class 12 Notes CBSE Chemistry Chapter 8 [Free PDF Download]

1. Explain the Features of d-block Elements?

  • The general electronic configuration of the d-block elements is given by (n −1) d1-10 ns1-2, where (n −1) stands for the inner d orbitals

  • In the d-block, each horizontal row consists of 10 elements as d-subshell, and it can accommodate a maximum of 10 electrons

  • The d-block elements with the incompletely filled d-subshell are known as transition metals

2. Give the Characteristics of Actinoids and Lanthanoids?

  • Lanthanoids are silvery-white soft metals which tarnish readily when they are exposed to air

  • The hardness of the lanthanoids increases with an increase in the atomic number

  • The melting point and boiling point of actinoids are moderately high, but they are considerably lower to that of transition elements

3. Explain the Characteristics of f Block Elements?

  • In general, these elements have a higher melting point and boiling point

  • These are usually heavy metals

  • They are the elements that tend to form coloured ions

  • They also display a variety of oxidisation states

  • They can form complex compounds

4. What are the transition elements? Write 3 characteristics of the transition elements. 

Elements whose d-orbital is partially filled in the ground states or in any one of the oxidation states of the element are known as transition elements. Their characteristics are:

  • Showing variable states of oxidation.

  • Forming coloured ions.

  • Forming complex compounds.

5. What is lanthanoid contraction? 

The all-around decrease in the atomic, as well as ionic radii with an increase in the atomic number, is referred to as lanthanoid contraction. While increasing from La+3 to Lu+3 in a lanthanoid series, the size of the ion reduces. This reduction in the size in the series is called the lanthanoid contraction. This phenomenon arises because of the imperfect shielding of a 4f electron by a different election from the same subshell.

6. Mention the main consequences of lanthanoid contraction.

The similarity of properties because of the lanthanoid contraction, size of elements following (Hf – Hg) become very similar to the size of the previous row elements (Zr – Cd) and therefore they become difficult to make out. Because of small changes in the atomic radii, the properties of lanthanoids are also almost similar making separation very difficult.

Basicity difference is because of the lanthanoid contraction, where size reduces from La+3 to Lu+3. Therefore the covalent character improves. Thus, the basic characteristic of the hydroxides also reduces i.e. the reason La(OH)3 has the highest basicity while Lu(OH)3 has the least.

7. What is meant by ‘’disproportionation’? 

In a given reaction, when the oxidation of any element in the compound grows in one product and reduces in another product, the reaction is considered to have undergone a disproportionation of the oxidation state. In simpler words, disproportionation is the reaction wherein a given element undergoes self-oxidation as well as self-reduction at the same time.

8. Why do transition elements show variable oxidation states?

Transition elements show variable oxidation states because there is very little energy difference among the (n-1) d-orbital and ns-orbital. Because of this little energy difference between the orbitals, both the energy levels may be used to form a bond. Therefore transition elements may exhibit a variety of oxidation states.