What is the Theory of Evolution?

The theory evolution is one of the most important scientific theories that has formed the basis for the study of biology, anatomy, physiology, and many other branches. According to the main concept of the theory of evolution, the species of beings tend to change with the passing of time. There could be many different ways in which a species can change. However, most of them have been described in the best way with the help of natural selection theory.

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The natural selection theory of evolution not only puts a perspective on the change that is brought forth in the species through time but also the mechanism with the help of which it happens. From this article, students will be able to figure out what is the theory of evolution and what are the different theories that have been postulated about evolution. 

What is Darwin Theory of Evolution?

The Darwin theory of evolution or more commonly known as the theory of natural selection was the theory proposed by Charles Darwin in the book he wrote called “ On the Origin of Species”. Sometimes, the theory of natural selection is also known as the survival of the fittest. According to the theory, some organisms contain traits and characteristics that are more suitable to the surrounding environment. Charles Darwin stated that these organisms were the ones to live longer and hence were able to reproduce to pass these desirable traits to their offspring. 

The organisms who didn’t possess these favourable traits would perish in the environment and hence their traits will not be passed down to the generation after the organism. With the passing of time, the traits which were the “fittest” were the ones passed down as the organisms with those traits survived. Eventually, after some time had passed, the smaller adaptations would lead to the formation of newer species. These are the changes that made human beings. 

However, Darwin wasn’t the only one who had these ideas. Alfred Russel Wallace also had some evidence of theory of evolution. The conclusions of his theory matched with the conclusions made by Darwin. They even had a collaboration and presented the findings that they had. Since they had the evidence to support their theories, they received a lot of favourable responses as well. 

One of the most important points to keep in mind about the theory of evolution by natural selection is that individuals don’t necessarily evolve, they just adapt to the surrounding environments that they have. These adaptations then combine to form a whole new species that has evolved from the one that pre-existed. 

What is the Mutation Theory of Evolution?

The mutation theory of evolution is basically a contradiction to the theory made by Darwin. According to this theory, organisms tend to evolve due to the presence of unexpected occurrences in their traits.  The mutation theory began its advancement at the start of the 20th century due to the efforts of Hugo de Vries who was a Dutch Geneticist and Botanist. The theory of mutation joined two traditions of evolutionary studies. The first tradition included the Saltationist theory which made an argument that new species can be formed constantly through discontinuous transformations. This was a contradiction to the Darwin theory of evolution, which stated that organisms are produced when their defining traits are accumulated gradually. 

Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution

The theory of modern synthesis or the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution merges the different concepts of Mendelian genetics with Darwinian principles of evolution. Thus, it creates a more comprehensive and unified evolution theory. The modern synthetic evolution theory has also been termed the Neo-Darwinian theory. There are numerous evolutionary biologists who are responsible for the introduction of the modern theory of evolution. Some of the important names include Ernst Mayr, T. Dobzhansky, R.A. Fisher, G.L. Stebbins, Sewall Wright, etc. 

The theory provides an explanation for the theory of evolution that happens in the terms of several genetic changes that occur in a population which further leads to the creation of a new and evolved species. There are also some concepts taken from the explanation of the Mendelian population or genetic population, gene frequency, and the gene pool. Some of the major concepts that are included in the theory are genetic variations, natural selection, geographical isolation, and reproductive changes. There are a number of changes signified in the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution that show different changes as to the process of evolution. 


The above-mentioned article attempts to provide an explanation of the different theories of evolution. Students can use the theory of evolution summary to know more about the topic and score well in the examinations.

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FAQs on Theory of Evolution

1. What is the theory of Evolution?

The theory of evolution can be considered as one of the most important theories that form the basis for all the different studies related to the subjects of biology, physiology, anatomy and so much more. The theory evolution states the idea that different organisms and their species keep going through changes over a certain period of time. This means that with the passing of time, the traits and characteristics of the organisms keep on changing. There are basically three different theories of evolution that have garnered the attention of experts. One is Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection. The other is the Mutation theory of evolution and the last one is the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution.

2. What is Darwin’s Theory of Evolution?

According to Darwin theory of evolution, organisms don’t necessarily evolve as a whole. Evolution actually occurs through the gradual accumulation or collection of definitive traits in an organism that is passed down. According to Darwin, there are certain organisms that have traits that allow them to survive in their surrounding environment. These traits that are deemed the “fittest” will be passed down to the offspring since the organism possessing the trait will survive the changes in the environment and will be able to reproduce. With the accumulation of such traits and characteristics that are passed down to the generations, a new species will be created.

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