Sexual dimorphism is a disorder in which the sexes with the same species have distinct traits that go beyond sexual organ variations. Most animals and plants suffer from this disease. Secondary sex characteristics, height, weight, colour, markings, and behavioural and cognitive variations are all possible differences. Sexual dimorphism meaning tells that these distinctions can be subtle or extreme, and they can be influenced by sexual and natural selection. Monomorphism is the exact opposite of dimorphism. The word dimorphic meaning in sexual dimorphism stands for occurring in two distinct forms or describing two distinct forms.
Sexual Dimorphism in Animals
Some Major Sexual Dimorphism in Animals have been Stated below:
Sexual Dimorphism in Humans
In humans, there are major five factors that are responsible for determining sex in humans, namely:-
The Presence or Absence of a Y Chromosome,
The Internal Reproductive Anatomy (including the Uterus in Females),
The Sex Hormones,
The Form of Gonads, And
The External Genitalia.
These five variables are usually either all female or all male. Sexual dimorphism in humans rarely experience sexual ambiguity, but when it does, the individual is biologically identified as intersex. The gonads, breasts, external genitals, internal genitals, body mass, the endocrine systems, height, and their physiological and behavioural effects are all examples of sexual dimorphism in humans. The existence or absence of a Y-chromosome, that encodes biochemical modifiers for sexual development in males, influences human sexual differentiation specifically at the gene level. As per Clark Spencer Larsen, modern Homo sapiens exhibit a wide spectrum of human sexual dimorphism, with about 15 percent average body mass differences between individual sexes.
In adolescent males, the mean basal metabolic rate has been approximately 6% higher than those in females, and it rises to almost 10% greater following puberty. Males turn more food to muscle and expendable circulating energy stores, whereas females transform more into fat. According to aggregated data on absolute strength, females have 40–60 percent of males' upper body strength and 70–75 percent of males' lower body strength.
In teen years, females are taller on average as compared to males, but in later adolescence and adulthood, males exceed the females in height. Adult males in the United States are 9 percent taller and 16.5 percent heavier than adult females. No proof exists that different degrees of sexual selection have resulted in sexual size human sexual dimorphism.
Males feature larger tracheae and branching bronchi, as well as around 30% more lung volume per body mass than females. Males have bigger hearts, a 10% higher production of red blood cells, and higher haemoglobin, which means they can hold more oxygen. They do have more clotting factors in circulation. These variations result in quicker wound healing and a greater tolerance for peripheral pain.
Sexually Dimorphic Birds
In birds, sexual dimorphism may take the form of size or plumage variations between the sexes. Males are usually larger than females in most taxa, but that may not be the case always, such as in hummingbirds, birds of prey, and certain dimorphic species of flightless birds. Males are usually more ornamented or brightly coloured than females, whereas plumage dimorphism in the type of ornamentation or coloration varies. These disparities have indeed been due to the sexes' unequal reproductive contributions. As they have a higher chance of producing offspring, this distinction results in a stronger female preference.
In certain Sexually dimorphic birds, the male's role in reproduction ends with copulation, whereas in others, the male takes on the role of primary caregiver. Polymorphisms in plumage probably evolved to illustrate these variations as well as other indicators of reproductive fitness, including body condition and survival. Females select the 'fittest' accessible male after receiving signals from the male phenotype.
Both biology and environmental factors contribute to sexual dimorphism. The red-backed fairywren is an instance of sexual polymorphism caused by environmental factors. During the breeding season, male red-backed fairy wrens are divided into three groups: brown breeders, black breeders, and brown auxiliaries. These variations occur as a result of the bird's health: healthy birds release more androgens, resulting in black breeders, whereas less healthy birds create less androgens, resulting in brown auxiliaries. The male's reproductive success is therefore evaluated by his performance during the non-breeding period of every year, allowing reproductive success to differ depending on environmental factors.
Sexual dimorphisms are often influenced by migration trends and attitudes. This factor can also be traced back to species size dimorphism. It has been proven that greater males are good at dealing with the challenges of migration and, as a result, are much more effective at reproducing once they arrive at their breeding destination.
Sexual Dimorphism in Pinnipeds
Due to various environmental factors and sexual selection such as breeding place, marine mammals have some of the largest sexual size differences among mammals. Pinnipeds' mating systems range from polygamy to serial monogamy. Pinnipeds are noted for their early differential growth and maternal investment, as the only source of nutrition for newborn pups is the mother's milk. Male sea lion pups, for instance, are slightly larger (approximately 10% heavier and 2% longer) than females when they are born. Prenatally and postnatally, the trend of differential expenditure may be altered. The southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, is among the most dimorphic species of mammals.
In elephant seals, sexual dimorphism is linked to a male's ability to protect territories and dominate large numbers of females, that is linked to polygynic activity. The broad sexual size disparity is due in part to sexual selection, it is however related to the fact that females enter reproductive age far sooner than males.
Furthermore, males can not provide parental care for their children and instead focus their energy on development. The secondary growth spurt in males throughout adolescence supports this.
Sexual Dimorphism in Fish
Ray-finned fish are a long-lived and diverse group of animals with the most sexual dimorphism of every other animal group. "Females are usually larger than males," according to Fairbairn, "but males are also larger in species with male-male fighting or male parental treatment, ranging from dwarf males to males upwards of 12 times stronger and heavier than females."
Males can be significantly larger than females in some cases. Lamprologus callipterus, a cichlid fish, is an illustration. The males of this fish are close to 60 times bigger than that of the females. Since males gather and protect empty snail shells where a female breeds, the male's larger size is thought to be beneficial.
For acquiring the largest shells, males have to be larger and much more dominant. Since she should lay her eggs within the empty shells in order to breed, the female's body size should stay small. If she becomes too big, she would not fit in the shells and therefore unable to breed. The female's small body size is indeed likely to aid her in locating an unoccupied shell. Larger shells, whereas favored by females, are frequently in short supply. As a result, the female's growth is restricted by the size of the shell, and she can actually adjust her growth rate depending on shell size availability. In other words, the capacity of a male to acquire large shells is proportional to his size. The more shells a male can obtain, the bigger the shells he can collect.