mRNA, tRNA and rRNA

RNA is a ribonucleic acid that aids in protein synthesis in our bodies. In the human body, this nucleic acid is responsible for the creation of new cells. It's normally extracted from a molecule of DNA. The only difference between RNA and DNA is that it only has one strand, while DNA has two, and it only contains a single ribose sugar molecule. Ribonucleic acid gets its name from this. Since it aids in the process of chemical reactions in the body, RNA is often referred to as an enzyme.

Basic Structure of RNA

The Basic Structure of RNA is as - 

All of the components of ribonucleic acid are identical to those of DNA, with only two exceptions. Except for the Thymine, which is substituted by uracil, RNA has the same nitrogen bases as DNA: adenine, guanine, and cytosine. The major building blocks of RNA are adenine and uracil, which form a base pair with the aid of two hydrogen bonds.

RNA has a hairpin structure, and nucleotides are shaped in this ribonucleic material, just as they are in DNA (RNA). Nucleosides are phosphate groups that are often used to aid in the synthesis of nucleotides in DNA.

Functions of RNA

The ribonucleic acid – RNA, which is primarily made up of nucleic acids, is involved in a variety of functions within the cell and can be found in bacteria, viruses, plants, and animals. These nucleic acids serve as structural molecules in cell organelles and also play a role in biochemical reaction catalysis. RNA of various forms is involved in a variety of cellular processes. RNA's key roles are as follows:

  • Make it easier for DNA to be translated into proteins.

  • It functions as an adapter molecule during protein synthesis.

  • Between the DNA and the ribosomes, it acts as a messenger.

  • In all living cells, they are the carriers of genetic material.

  • Encourages ribosomes to choose the appropriate amino acid for the formation of new proteins in the body.

RNA Types

There are several different forms of RNA, the most well-known and studied in the human body being:

  • tRNA – Transfer RNA

The transfer RNA is in charge of selecting the correct protein or amino acids required by the body, thus assisting the ribosomes. It can be found at the amino acid's endpoints. This type of RNA is also known as soluble RNA, and it connects the messenger RNA to the amino acid.

  • rRNA – Ribosomal RNA

The ribosome's portion, rRNA, is located in the cytoplasm of a cell, where ribosomes are found. Ribosomal RNA is essential for the synthesis and translation of mRNA into proteins in all living cells. The most prevalent RNA inside the cells of all living beings is rRNA, which is primarily made up of cellular RNA.

  • mRNA – Messenger RNA

This type of RNA works by passing genetic material into ribosomes and transmitting information about the types of proteins that the body cells need. These forms of RNA are classified as messenger RNA because of their functions. As a result, mRNA plays an important role in the transcription and protein synthesis processes.

Structure of tRNA

  • The tRNA molecule, also known as sRNA (soluble RNA), serves as an adapter.

  • The anticodon loop in tRNA has bases that are complementary to the code.

  • It binds to an amino acid acceptor at one end.

  • tRNA's secondary structure resembles a cloverleaf.

  • The tRNA molecule has a compact structure that resembles an inverted L.

Ribozymes (RNA Enzymes)

RNAs can now adopt complex tertiary structures and function as biological catalysts, according to new research. Ribozymes are RNA enzymes that have many of the characteristics of traditional enzymes, such as an active site, a substrate-binding site, and a cofactor binding site, such as a metal ion.

RNase P, a ribonuclease that generates tRNA molecules from larger, precursor RNAs, was one of the first ribozymes to be discovered. RNase P is made up of both RNA and protein, but the RNA moiety is the catalyst alone.

  • Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is typically single-stranded, with ribose as the pentose sugar and uracil instead of thymine as the pyrimidine. Significant intramolecular base pairing may cause an RNA strand to take on a three-dimensional structure.

  • There are three types of RNA, each of which is involved in the production of proteins.

  • During translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) functions as a bridge between DNA and the synthesis of protein products.

  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a stable RNA that is found in abundance in ribosomes. During protein synthesis, it ensures that the mRNA and ribosomes are aligned correctly, and it catalyzes the formation of peptide bonds between two aligned amino acids.

  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small, stable RNA that transports an amino acid to the ribosome's corresponding protein synthesis site. The right amino acid is incorporated in the polypeptide chain being synthesized thanks to base pairing between the tRNA and mRNA.

  • While RNA is not used in cells for long-term genetic details, it is used by many viruses as their genetic material.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1 - Explain Three Types of RNA.

Ans: RNA, also known as ribonucleic acid, is a nucleotide polymer composed of ribose sugar, phosphate, and bases like adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. It acts as a link between the genetic information encoded by DNA and proteins, which is important for gene expression.

The three RNAs that are involved in protein synthesis are as follows -

  1. mRNA (messenger RNA) is a type of RNA that is generated during transcription. It transports a gene's genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasmic ribosome.

  2. rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is a type of RNA that, along with proteins, makes up the ribosome, which is the site of protein synthesis.

  3. tRNA (transfer RNA): During translation, it transports the right amino acid to the ribosome.

Q2 What are the Components of RNA?

Ans: RNA is divided into three types: mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA.

  • mRNA serves as a link between the nucleus, which houses DNA, and the cytoplasm, which produces proteins.

  • Protein synthesis is aided by rRNA and tRNA.

  • Gene regulation and mRNA degradation are aided by additional RNAs.