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Red Algae

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About Red Algae

IVSAT 2024

Rhodophyta, or red algae, are one of the oldest eukaryotic algae groups. The Florideophyceae (class) has the majority of species (6,793), which are predominantly multicellular marine red algae, including several well-known seaweeds. 

Red algae seaweed can be found in abundance in coastal environments, but they are uncommon in freshwater. About 5% of freshwater red algae can be found, with higher concentrations in warmer locations. There are no terrestrial species save for two coastal cave-dwelling species in the asexual class Cyanidiophyceae, which may be owing to an evolutionary bottleneck in which the last common ancestor lost around 25% of its core genes and much of its evolutionary versatility.

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Red Algae Plant Classification

Domain: Eukaryota

(unranked): Diaphoretickes

(unranked): Archaeplastida

Division: Rhodophyta

Red Algae Morphology

The morphology of red algae varies greatly, from unicellular to complex parenchymatous and non-parenchymatous thallus.   The cell walls of red algae are doubled. The polysaccharides agarose and agaropectin, which may be removed from cell walls by boiling as agar, are found in the outer layers.  Cellulose makes up the majority of the inside walls. They also have the most gene-rich plastid genomes that have been discovered.

Cell Structure: Throughout their entire life cycle, red algae lack flagella and centrioles. The presence of normal spindle fibres, microtubules, un-stacked photosynthetic membranes, phycobilin pigment granules, pit connections between cells filamentous genera, and the absence of chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum define red algal cell structure.

Chloroplast: Red algae have a characteristic hue due to the presence of water-soluble pigments called phycobilins (phycocyanobilin, phycoerythrobilin, phycourobilin, and phycobiliviolin), which are confined into phycobilisomes. Thylakoids are uniformly distributed and ungrouped in the chloroplast. Chlorophyll a, - and -carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin are some of the other pigments. The chloroplast is surrounded by a double membrane of the chloroplast envelope. Other distinguishing characteristics of red algal chloroplast include the absence of grana and the attachment of phycobilisomes to the stromal surface of the thylakoid membrane.

Storage Products: Floridoside (the primary product), Disofloridoside, digeneaside, mannitol, sorbitol, dulcitol, and other photosynthetic products are among the most important. Floridean starch (similar to amylopectin in land plants) is deposited freely (scattered) in the cytoplasm as a long-term storage product. Environmental factors like pH, medium salinity, light intensity, nutritional constraint, and other factors affect the concentration of photosynthetic products. The production of floridoside increases as the salinity of the medium rises, preventing water from exiting the algal cells.

Pit Connections: Pit connections and pit plugs are distinguishing characteristics of red algae that arise during the cytokinesis process after mitosis.  Cytokinesis is absent in red algae. In most cases, a small pore is left in the freshly formed partition's centre. Where the daughter cells remain in contact, the pit connection is established. The formation of a pit plug, which is deposited in the wall gap that links the cells, blocks cytoplasmic continuity shortly after the pit connection is created. Primary pit connections are made between cells that share a common parent cell. Most red algal cells contain two principal pit connections, one to each next cell, because apical development is the norm.

Secondary pit connections are those that exist between cells that do not share a common parent cell. When an uneven cell division produces a nucleated daughter cell, it fuses to a neighbouring cell, forming these connections. In the Ceramiales order, secondary pit connections can be recognised in patterns.

Pit Plugs: Tubular membranes emerge after a pit connection is created. The plug core, a granular protein, then develops around the membranes. Tubular membranes fade away with time. While some red algae orders have only a plug core, others contain cap membranes on both sides of the protein mass. Until one of the cells dies, the pit plug remains in place between them. The live cell then develops a layer of wall material that plugs the plug.

Red Algae Reproduction

The reproductive cycle of red algae can be initiated by a variety of circumstances, including the length of the day. Red algae can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Asexual reproduction can take place via spore formation and vegetative reproduction (fragmentation, cell division or propagules production).

Fertilization: The sperm in red algae are not motile. As a result, they rely on water currents to transfer their gametes to the female organs, even though their sperm can "glide" to the trichogyne of a carpogonium.

The trichogyne will continue to grow until it comes into contact with a spermatium; once fertilised, the cell wall at its base thickens, isolating it from the rest of the carpogonium.

The walls of the spermatium and carpogonium disintegrate as they collide. The male nucleus splits and goes into the carpogonium, with one half merging with the nucleus of the carpogonium.

The polyamine spermine is generated, which causes the formation of carpospores. Long, sensitive appendages on spermatangia may boost their chances of "hooking up."

Life Cycle: They show a succession of generations. Many have two sporophyte generations, the carposporophyte-producing carpospores, which germinate into a tetrasporophyte, which generates spore tetrads, which dissociate and germinate into gametophytes, in addition to a gametophyte generation. The tetrasporophyte and the gametophyte are usually (but not always) identical.

Carpospores can also germinate directly into thalloid gametophytes, or carposporophytes can create a tetraspore without having to go through the (free-living) tetrasporophyte phase. Tetrasporangia can be organised as a tetrad, in a cross, or in a row (zonate). The carposporophyte can be found inside the gametophyte

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Types of Red Algae

1. Red Hair Algae

Red hair algae is a form of hair algae, as the name implies. Some hobbyists strive to keep it in their tanks because of the beautiful red hue. Because this is a slow-growing alga, several other algae species can compete for resources.

  • Scientific Name:  Centroceras clavulatum

  • Classification:  Macro Algae

  • Common Names: Red hair algae,

  • Reproduction: Non-sexual

  • Colour: Red to Dark Red

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2. Red Coralline Algae

Coralline algae belong to the Corallinales order of red algae. Because of calcareous deposits within the cell walls, they have a hard thallus. The most common colour of these algae is pink or a shade of red, but other species can also be purple, yellow, blue, white, or grey-green. Coralline algae play a vital part in coral reef ecology. Coralline algae are eaten by sea urchins, parrotfish, limpets, and chitons (both molluscs).

  • Division: Rhodophyta

  • Class: Florideophyceae

  • Subclass: Corallinophycidae

  • Order: Corallinales

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Many types of red algae can be eaten. The most often obtained edible red algae in Icelandic waters are dulse (Palmaria palmata), Irish moss (Chondrus crispus), and purple laver. Due to the importance of dulse (the lower algae in the photo) as a food source for early Icelanders, coastal estates where this alga flourished were more valuable than others. In fact, the Icelandic sagas are the first records we have of the importance of algae to northern Europe's early civilizations.

Red Algae Toxic Effect

Red Tide

The phenomena of red tides are the staining of the sea surface. It's a term used to describe toxic red algae blooms (or algal blooms in general) that occur along with coastal areas and are caused by high concentrations of aquatic microorganisms including protozoans and unicellular algae (e.g. dinoflagellates and diatoms). Terrestrial runoff containing fertiliser, sewage, and livestock waste transports a large number of nutrients to the seas, causing blooms. Natural phenomena such as river floods or nutrient upwelling from the seafloor, which commonly occur after major storms, feed nutrients and generate red algae blooms.

It is not necessary for the red tide to be red in colour, it can simply lead to discolouration of water or water being murky. However, the presence of red algae in water (red algae sea) may give red colour to the sea.

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FAQs on Red Algae

1. What are the Requirements for a Red Algae Bloom?

Ans. Algae thrive in the upper 60 to 90 metres (200 to 300 feet) of ocean water because they require warmth, sunlight, and nutrients to develop and reproduce. The epipelagic zone, the uppermost layer of water, is rich in oxygen, is exposed to sunshine, and is warmer than water at lower levels. When algae and other ocean animals die, they sink to the ocean's bottom, where they degrade and release the chemicals that they were composed of. These nutrients can deplete the oxygen in the water under certain circumstances.

The density of water and how it travels is determined by temperature and salt concentration (currents). Coldwater is denser (heavier) than warm water and sinks to the bottom (downwelling). Other water flows across to take its place. Water at the surface is eventually replaced by water that has risen, or upwelled, from the ocean's depths to the surface. Upwellings transport nutrient-rich water to the surface. Algal blooms may be triggered by this increase in nutrients.

2. What are Marine Red Algae Used For?

Ans. Red algae has been demonstrated to strengthen your immune system by increasing blood circulation, regulating blood sugar levels, and lowering LDL or bad cholesterol.

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