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Ovary - Plant

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Ovary Plant and Plant Ovary Function

Plants are made up of many different parts and some of these parts are reproductive in nature. We all know that in some flowering plants, there are certain reproductive parts that are female in nature. Today we are going to learn about one such part known as the ovary plant part.

This is a part of the female reproductive system present in the plant or more commonly known as the Gynoecium. There are certain details that students need to know about the ovary of a flower and we are going to talk about it right here.

Ovary of a Flower

The answer to which part of a flower develops into fruit is the ovary. In certain flowering plants, the ovary is basically a very essential part of the female reproductive organ that is present in the flower. It is specifically that particular part of the entire pistil that tends to hold all the ovules. The location of the ovary happens to be below or above the connection point and it is connected to the sepals and the petals as well. To be precise, the mature ovary forms the fruit or seeds that tend to grow in the plant.

To know more about the ovary, we are going to provide some more details right here. With the help of these details, students will definitely be able to understand important topics such as the mature ovary forms, functions and so many other things for sure. 

Structure of Ovary in Plants

When it comes to discussing the structure of the ovary in plants, there are certain details that students should definitely be familiar with. When they have these details, there is no doubt that they will be able to perform well in their exams by gaining a deeper understanding of the chapter in the best way. Talking about the ovary in flowering plants, it is a very important part of the reproductive organ. The ovary is an essential part of the pistil that holds most of the ovules or the eggs. The location is connected to the petals and the sepals of the plant. 

The pistil in most plants is made of one or several of the carpels fused together which is then termed tricarpel or bicarpel. Hence, the ovary might just contain certain parts of the carpel depending on the number.

Right above the ovary, there is the stigma and the style of the plant where the collection and germination of pollen grain happen. The pollen grains grow in the stigma and then travel through the style to reach the ovary of the plant without any trouble for sure. With every single one of the pollen grains, there is one individual ovule. There are certain pollinated flowers that tend to have modified and reduced ovaries. After that, the mature ovary forms the fruit which is then taken from the plant.

The Function of Ovary in Flower

We all know that flowers tend to contain both the female as well as the male reproductive organs in the best way. The male reproductive organs are known as the filament, anther, and stamen. These parts are collectively responsible for the production of pollen grains. Then there are the female reproductive organs such as the stigma, the ovary, and the style. Well, the male and the female reproductive organs are connected with the help of the pistil. These organs help in the maturing of the ovules which then develop into the fruit of the plant.

Before knowing the function of the ovaries in these plants, it is important to have some idea about the location of the ovaries. It can be said that these ovaries are basically just located in the central part of the flower so that it remains well-protected in the best way. However, the location might vary according to the species that the plants belong to. One of the main functions of the ovaries is to ensure that the fragile ovules are kept safe in the protective chamber so that they can develop into seeds and grow further.

Another one of the main functions that the ovaries tend to have is to ensure the proper transporting of the fertilized seeds. Once the ovules are created and fertilized, they will develop into seeds. The function of the ovary is to then safely transport these developed seeds in order to make sure that they germinate in the best way. The ovules contained in the ovary will turn into seeds after the process of fertilization is complete and the zygote is created. This will then lead to the production of the embryo which the ovary will help to keep in a safe manner.

Classification of the Ovary based on its Position

The nomenclature of the placements of ovaries is established by the attachment site, where the other flower sections come along and connect to the top of the ovary. If the ovary is placed above the insertion point, it is superior and inferior, if placed below.


Superior Ovary

A superior ovary is an ovary connected to the container over the attachment of other floral components. A superior ovary is seen in the forms of rich fruits such as real berries, drupes, etc. A flower with this configuration is classified as hypogynous. Members of this ovary type comprise the legumes.


Half-Inferior Ovary

A half-inferior ovary also called “half-superior”, “sub interior,” or “partially inferior,”) is immersed or encircled by the receiver.

This happens in blooms of the family Lythraceae, which contains the crape myrtles. Such blooms are named perigynous or half-epigynous. In other classifications, half-inferior ovaries are not classified and therefore they are placed either with the superior or inferior ovaries.

More precisely, a half-inferior ovary contains almost equal amounts of ovarian above and below the insertion site. Other varying degrees of inferiority can be indicated by other portions. For example, a "one-fifth inferior ovary" has roughly one-fifth of its length under the insertion site. Likewise, just one-quarter of a "three-quarters inferior ovary" lies above the insertion.


Inferior Ovary

An inferior ovary occurs below the connection of another flower component.  A poem is a form of fleshy fruit that is commonly used as an example, although the detailed study of some poems will demonstrate that it is truly a half-inferior ovary. 

Flowers having inferior ovaries are called epigynous. Few other examples of the flowers having an inferior ovary are Fuchsia (inferior berry), orchids (inferior capsule), banana (inferior berry), the melon and gourd family, Asteraceae (inferior achene-like fruit, also termed as cypsela), and pepo of the squash, Cucurbitaceae.


A Brief about Eduard Strasburger

At the University of Bonn, Eduard Strasburger was a scientist (from 1881 to 1912) who was the director of the Botany Institute and the Botanical Garden was one among the most commendable researchers in the world of plant biology. Not just as the founder of modern plant cell biology but moreover, as an outstanding teacher who firmly believed in "education through science." 

He added to plant cell biology by finding the separate steps of cytokinesis and karyokinesis in the algae and higher plants and characterizing cytoplasmic streaming in the diverse systems and reporting on the formation of the pollen tube inside the embryo sac and the direction of the tube by synergies. Strasburger acknowledged many challenges which are significant in recent plant cell biology.

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FAQs on Ovary - Plant

1. What are the Ovaries of the Plant?

We all are familiar with the fact that plants have both males as well as female reproductive systems. When we are talking about ovaries, it can be said that these are basically a very important and essential part of the female reproductive organ that plants tend to have. The ovaries of the plant are the section where all the ovules or the eggs are kept for safekeeping so that they can further develop into the seeds which can then germinate to produce the fruit. So, there is simply not a single speck of doubt when we say that ovaries are a very important part of the entire reproductive system of plants.

2. Which Part of the Flower Develops into Fruit?

Most students often tend to have questions regarding the female reproductive system of the plants. They often want to know which part of the flower tends to become the fruit. Well, the answer to the question is that the mature ovary further develops and becomes the fruit of the plant. This process happens in the ovary and it is known as fertilization. We are familiar with the fact that ovaries are a very important part of the female reproductive system of the plant. Well, ovaries are the location where the pollen is stored and further developed into ovules and then seeds. These seeds then germinate to make the ovaries mature and that turns them into fruits. 

3. What is the difference between the embryo sac and the ovule?

The embryo sac is a component of the ovule. The ovule is a tiny component in seed plants, comprising the embryo sac and wrapped by the nucellus, that grows into a seed following fertilization. Ovule provides origin to and stores the female reproductive cells. The ovule consists of three different parts which are namely, the nucleus, integuments constituting its outer layer, and the female gametophyte or embryo sac. The embryo sac generates the egg cell for fertilization. After the fertilization gets over, the ovule then develops and transforms into a seed. The embryo sac emerges from the megaspore during three cycles of mitotic divisions. It comprises the egg cell, two synergid cells, three antipodal cells, and the big central cell. 

4. What is a human egg called?

Ova or the ovum in the biology related to humans is the individual cell that is produced from one of the reproductive organs in females, which are the ovaries. This is the potential of growing into a new human when fertilized with a sperm cell. The outside layer of each ovary is surrounded by a covering of cells; these enclose the undeveloped egg cells, which are found in the ovaries from the moment of birth. A hollow ball of cells, the follicle, contains each ovum. Within the follicle, the ovum progressively develops. It takes roughly four months for a follicle to grow after it is stimulated.

5. What is plant fertilization?

The process of fusing of the female gamete which is the ovum or egg with the male gamete generated in the pollen tube by the pollen grain. In 1884 Strasburger identified fertilization in blooming plants. Flowers are the reproductive organs of angiosperms. They vary widely physically and are of remarkable variation in mechanisms of reproduction. The process of fertilization in plants happens when gametes under haploid circumstances interact to generate a zygote which is diploid. The male gametes of the flower are transmitted to the female reproductive organs by pollinators. The end outcome of this process is the creation of an embryo in a seed.