The brain is divided into specific lobes by the distinct fishes present in the brain's central hemisphere. These Central hemispheres are composed of four loaves: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital, respectively. These lobes may further be classified once again based on the function that they perform.
It is essential to understand that each part of the lobes of the cerebral cortex does not function solely. The relationship between the lobes of the brain and the lobes of the cerebral hemisphere is very complex and intricate. The cerebrum of the brain, also known as the central hemisphere, is divided into four frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes.
Mainly four lobes of the cerebral cortex are there. Such as -
The front lobe is responsible for the brain's personality and behavior, emotions, judgment, planning, and problem-solving properties. Speaking and writing and the function it carries out the speech is also known as Broca's area. The motor strip carries out body movement. In addition, intelligence, concentration, and self-awareness are also carried by this particular lobe.
This particular part of the brain interprets language, words, sense of touch, pain, and temperature through the sensory strip. This also interprets signals from vision, hearing, motor-sensory, and memory. These lobes of the cerebral cortex carry out spatial and visual perception.
This particular lobe of the brain interprets vision which includes color, light, moment, etc.
This particular lobe of the brain is responsible for understanding language, which is Wernicke's area. So memory, hearing, sequencing and organizing, and knowledge of the language are there.
Apart from the Cerebral Cortex lobes several other areas are there that play vital roles in functioning and regulating the brain.
It lies in the left part of the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex. If this area is damaged due to unforeseen circumstances, one may have difficulty in moving their facial muscles, and produce any speech. The person suffering from Broca's aphasia feels difficulty in speaking and writing but is able to understand what others say.
This lies on the left side of the temporal cerebral lobes. This area is the core center for the comprehension of the language. Damage to this particular segment of the brain is known as Wernicke's aphasia. The person suffering from Wernicke's aphasia conditions feels difficulty in understanding any language. Though the speech is very clear, they utter some unnecessary words that do not have any meaning.
The cortex is the surface of the cerebrum. It has a very peculiar folded appearance with hills and valleys. The cortex contains roughly about 16 billion neurons, while the cerebral has 70 billion, making it 86 billion. These are arranged in a particular layer. The cell bodies of the nerve cells give this cortex a grey-brown color and hence contribute towards the name grey matter. Underneath the cortex lies Axons which are the long nerve fibers that connect brain areas to others and are also called white matter. When studied in more detail, the sulci and gyri of cerebrum were found. The folded part is called the gyrus and the groove between them is a sulcus. The cortex contains neurons that are very delicately interconnected to other parts of the brain by axons.
The sulci and gyri of cerebrum increase the total surface area of the brain, thus allowing more neurons two feet inside the skull and thus enabling them for various purposes. Each fold is a gyrus, and each groove between folds is called a sulcus. These are the names of the folds and grooves that help in defining the specific brain regions. From the brain sulcus diagram, one can easily understand this.
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Areas of the cortex are connected by specific pathways known as white matter tracts. Messages travel from one gyrus to another, from one human brain lobes to another from one side of the brain to another, and towards the deeply embedded structures in the brain. The coronal cross-section shows the basal ganglia and basal ganglia.
Hypothalamus is located in the base of the third ventricle and is the central control system of the autonomic nervous system. It plays a crucial role in controlling behavior such as thirst, sleep, hunger, and sexual response. It also regulates blood pressure, emotions, secretion of many hormones, and body temperature.
It is located behind the third ventricle, and it helps regulate the body's internal clock and circadian rhythms by the secretion of the melatonin hormone. It also plays a role in sexual development.
It serves as a relay station for all the information from the cortex and goes to the cortex. Therefore, it plays a vital role in pain sensation, attention alertness, and memory.
The brain has a hollow fluid-filled cavity known as ventricles. Inside these ventricles are ribbon structures called the choroid plexus that make clear colorless cerebrospinal fluid or CSF.
Now, this CSF flows around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion it, in the event of any injury this circulating fluid is constantly absorbed and replenished.
Q1: What are Short-term and Long-term Memories in the Human Brain?
Ans: Short-term memory, also called working memory, primarily occurs in the prefrontal cortex. Stores information about 1 minute and its capacity is limited to about only seven items. For example, it enables a person to dial a phone number that someone just told them. It also intervenes during reading to memorize a sentence that you have just read so that the next wall will make sense.
While long-term memory is processed in the hippocampus of the temporal lobe and is activated only when you want to memorize something for a long time. Memory as unlimited content and duration capacity accountants accurate figures or personal memory and facts and data. The skill memory is processed in the cerebellum. This cerebellum releases information to the basal ganglia. It stores the auto-automatic learning memory like typing something on the keyboard, tying a shoelace, playing an instrument, or riding a bike.
Q2: Why is the Pituitary Gland Called the Master Gland of the Brain?
Ans: It lies in a tiny pocket at the base of the skull called the sella turcica. The hypothalamus connects the pituitary gland by the pituitary stalk. It is also known as the master gland as it controls all the endocrine glands inside the full body. It secretes hormones that control sexual development, promote bone and muscle growth, and help in response to stress.