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Kingdom Monera, Protista and Fungi

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Kingdom Monera

All the bacteria including blue-green algae or cyanobacteria are a part of the Kingdom Monera The only prokaryotic Kingdom out of all the kingdoms is Monera as they include bacteria that lack a true nucleus. Kingdom Monera also constitutes the most numerous living cellular organisms. Some of the cyanobacteria and actinomycetes are multicellular while most of the bacteria are unicellular. 

Kingdom Monera comprises the bacteria and cyanobacteria that are usually known as blue-green algae. While only bacteria are prokaryotic and lack a true nucleus, (which means without a nuclear membrane). The only prokaryotic plant kingdom is Monera. Bacteria were the first cellular organisms to develop on the earth since the afterlife was initiated around 3.5 billion years ago and they are the single cellular organisms on the planet earth for about the next two billion years. 

Most bacteria are unicellular or single-celled but some cyanobacteria and actinomycetes are multicellular and filamentous in which filaments might be branched. Monerans are also the most abundant of all living cellular organisms. 

Kingdom Monera- Classification

The three sub-kingdoms of the Monera Kingdom are listed below-

  1. Archaebacteria- These are found in the most extreme habitats like hot springs, marshy areas, and salty areas. They have a special cell wall that helps them to survive in extreme conditions. These have a unique nucleotide sequence for their rRNA and tRNA. They have an autotrophic mode of nutrition. Examples are- Ignicoccus hospitalis and Aeropyrum pernix.

  2. Eubacteria (true bacteria)- These have a cell wall that is rigid and made of peptidoglycans. These bacterias move with the help of flagella and some of the bacteria contains pili which are short appendages on the surface of the cell which helps them during sexual reproduction. Examples are- Clostridium and Rhizobium.

  3. Cyanobacteria- These are photosynthetic in nature and are also called blue-green algae. These bacteria contain carotenoids and phycobilins and chlorophyll and are found mostly in the aquatic region. Examples are- Spirulina, Nostoc, and Anabaena.

Kingdom Monera- Functions

Functions of Monerans classified on the basis of Nutrition, Respiration, and Reproduction as listed below- 

  1. Monerans have four types of nutritional categories which include autotrophs, saprotrophs, symbionts, and parasites. 

  2. Respiration can be aerobic and anaerobic. Cellular respiration occurs in the inner extensions of the cell membrane which are known as mesosomes. 

  3. Reproduction can also be of two types- sexual and asexual. Genetic recombination takes place in sexual reproduction while asexual reproduction is done by binary fission.

Kingdom Monera- Characteristics

  • These are unicellular organisms.

  • Ribosomes present are of 70S type.

  • No nuclear membrane bounds the DNA.

  • Mitochondria, plastid lysosomes, golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, and some other cell organelles are not present.

  • The cell wall is made of peptidoglycan.

  • The locomotory organ is the flagella.

  • These are also known as environmental decomposers.

Kingdom Protista

Kingdom Protista includes unicellular eukaryotes such as diatoms, protozoa, and unicellular algae. These are neither animals nor plants nor fungi. Water or environments which are damp terrestrial are where protists live.

They have membrane-bound organelles like a nucleus with chromosomes covered in the nuclear membrane, chloroplast (only in photosynthetic protists), mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum, and golgi bodies. Here, the respiratory organelles are mitochondria. 

Protista is parasitic, photosynthetic or saprotrophic.

Unlike bacteria, Protista would have flagella or cilia having 9 + 2 microtubules which consist of only one spirally protein (flagellin). They can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Some protists are harmful and some are beneficial to human beings.

Kingdom Protista- Classification

The three phyla of Kingdom Protista are listed below-












The protistan algae belong



Phylum Chlorophyta


Kingdom Protista- Functions

  • 80% of the earth’s oxygen is provided by the blue-green algae. Brown-algae and blue-green algae are grown for the production of biofuel.

  • They are the foundation of the food chain and act as primary producers.

  • These are symbionts which means they have a close relationship between two species where one is benefitted.

Kingdom Protista- Characteristics

  • The organelles are membrane-bound. For example, a nucleus has chromosomes enclosed in the nuclear membrane, chloroplast, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, or Golgi bodies.

  • Respiratory organelles are mitochondria.

  • These can either be photosynthetic, parasitic, or saprotrophic.

  • Cilia or flagella are used for locomotion.

  • Reproduction can be sexual as well as asexual.

Kingdom Fungi

During the warm humid season, chapati, bread slices, leather shoes, and belts, develop a dusty layer on them. In flower beds and lawns, mushrooms pop out and these are called fungi.

Kingdom Fungi includes eukaryotic organisms that are omnipresent and have a cell wall. Microorganisms like yeasts, mushrooms, and molds are eukaryotic organisms that are classified under the Kingdom Fungi.

Kingdom Fungi- Classification

Classification of the Kingdom Fungi can be done on the basis of mode of nutrition and spore formation.

On the Basis of Mode of Nutrition




Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Rhizopus


Puccinia and Taphrina


Mycorrhiza and lichens

On the Basis of Spore Formation


Mucorales, Zoopagales







Kingdom Fungi- Functions

  • These are responsible for the breakdown of organic matter which releases carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and nitrogen into the soil as well as the atmosphere.

  • These are used in many industrial and household processes like wine-making, beer-making, bread-making, cake-baking, and certain cheese.

Kingdom Fungi- Characteristics

  • These are heterotrophic multicellular or unicellular eukaryotes.

  • Cell walls are made of chitin.

  • Thread-like slender filaments are known as hyphae which are divided by partitions called septa in the cells.

  • The network formed by a group of hyphae is known as the mycelium.

  • These do not have chlorophyll.

  • Aquatic fungi have flagellate spores or flagellate gametes. At any stage of the life cycle, higher fungi don't have a flagellum.

  • Reproduction in fungi can be both sexual by means of conjugation and asexual by flagellate or non-flagellate spores.

Main Kinds of Fungi

Fungi can be classified into five main kinds. They are

  • Myxomycetes, the slime molds that have an irregular shape. They have a creeping multinucleate mass of protoplasm sometimes enclosing up to several square meters.

  • Phycomycetes, are unicellular, branched, and filamentous. Example: Phytophthora and Rhizopus.

  • Ascomycetes, single-celled or multicellular. Example: Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Neurospora.

  • Basidiomycetes, multicellular, branched and are characterized by smuts, rusts, toadstools, and mushrooms that are large enough so that they can be viewed through naked eyes.

  • Deuteromycetes, multicellular filamentous branched fungi reproduce by asexual means alone. Example: Alternaria.

Mycorrhizae and lichens exist in symbiotic relationships. Lichens are the combination of definite fungus and a blue-green or green alga that prepares food while the fungus aids in protection and absorbs minerals and water from the neighboring places.

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FAQs on Kingdom Monera, Protista and Fungi

1. What are some of the uses of fungi?

Fungi are used to recycle dead and decayed matter. Some of the fungi are also used in medicines to control diseases of animals and humans. Fungi also recycle the organic matter present in the environment. The mushroom species of fungi are used as food by humans since they are edible. To know more about the Kingdom Fungi, students can visit Vedantu.

2. What are some of the different shapes of bacteria?

Few shapes of bacteria are listed in the table below-




Oval or spherical in shape.


Rod-shaped. Flagella may or may not be present.


Comma or kidney-like. Bacteria are motile, having a flagellum at the end.


Spiral or coiled like a corkscrew


Filamentous body with the filaments very minute in size.


A stalk is present in the body of bacteria.


The body of the bacteria is swollen in places.

3. What are some of the economical importance of protists?

Protists are also known for the foundation of the food chain. These have a close relationship between two species out of which one species is benefitted. Protists help in the production of biofuels and oxygen. Sometimes, these are harvested for other industrial applications and food as well. Phytoplankton is consumed by whales while sea creatures like larval carbs and shrimps feed on zooplankton. 

4. How do protists reproduce in sexual reproduction?

The sexual reproduction of protists includes the production of gametes by meiosis and then at the time of fertilization, these gametes unite and produce new individuals. This process is known as syngamy where conjugation and alteration of generations take place. Some of the protists which reproduce by the process of syngamy are green algae slime molds and other similar organisms. Syngamy in simpler terms means when two gametes, each of which has reproductive cells and half of the required genetic material, combine in order to form a zygote.

5. What is meant by yeast?

A unicellular or non-mycelial, either spherical or oval in shape and the size is very small is known as yeast. The colonies in yeast may appear white, creamy, brown, red, or yellow. The individual cells are colourless. The types of reproduction that are possible in the case of yeast are vegetative, sexual, or asexual. Yeast is most commonly used while preparing food as the presence of carbon dioxide in it rises the baked food.

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