Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
Store Icon

Kidney Stone

share icon
share icon

A Brief Sketch of Kidney

Kidneys remove waste and fluid from the body and excreted them in the urine. When there is so much waste in the body and not enough fluids, thus wastes are not possible to excrete through, which in turn sticks to the kidneys and convert as kidney stones. The collection of salt and minerals that are made up of uric acid or calcium forms a hard structure in the kidney called kidney stones. There is a possibility of traveling these stones to other parts of the urinary tract. They can vary in different sizes, some might be too small and some might grow to several inches. In certain cases, kidney stones can grow as large as that of the size of the kidney. Let us see kidney stone causes, and How does kidney stones occur?

How does Kidney Stone Occur?

Anyone can get kidney stones. Men can get more often as compared to women. The kidney stones are formed when the presence of certain minerals in the body gets accumulated in the urine. When you are not well hydrated then the chances of increasing the levels of mineral concentration in the urine is more and when the mineral concentration increases stones are formed inside the kidney.

According to a survey conducted in the US one out of every eleven people in the US gets affected by kidney stones. It is found in common in the people who are obsessed, and in the persons who have diabetes. Until the smaller kidney stones are moved to the ureter the symptoms are not found and the effect of kidney stones can be worsened if not identified earlier. 

The Kidney Stone Early Symptoms include:

  1. Occurrence of Pain in the Belly or Back or Side: 

The pain that is experienced due to kidney stones are known as renal colic. The one who has experienced this pain can relate it to the pain experienced during childbirth or stab with a knife. When the stones are moved to the narrow part of the ureter it blocks the way and increases the pressure, thus the pain signals are sent by activating the nerve cells and to the brain. As the stone moves the location of the pain changes along with the intensity of it. This pain is felt below the ribs to the sides and back of it. But the severity of the pain does not depend on the size, even the small stones can cause more pain.

  1. Burning Sensation during Urination: 

When the stones are moved to the junction that is present in between the ureter and bladder. While urinating the pain is experienced this condition is called dysuria. 

  1. The Urgency to Urinate: 

Feeling to urinate frequently and urgently than usual is a sign that indicates the presence of stone in the lower part of the urinary tract. This urgency may also happen due to infection in the urinary tract.

  1. Finding Blood in Urine: 

Blood found in the urinary tract is a common symptom of kidney stones, this condition is called hematuria.

  1. Smelly Urine: 

In a healthy person the urine is clear and odorless. Whereas the foul-smelling urine might be a signal of the infection in the kidney or a part of the urinary tract. According to a survey it is found that about eight percent of the people who have acute kidney stones had an infection in the urinary tract.

  1. Nausea and Vomiting: 

It is a common condition found in people suffering from kidney stones. It happens during the connections that are common in between the nerves of kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. The stones present in the kidneys can trigger the nerves that are connected to the GI tract that results in stomach upset. Thus in an intense pain condition, the body responds by having nausea and vomiting sensations.

  1. Chills and Fever: 

Infection in the kidney or other part of the urinary tract can lead to fever and chills. The fever might be with a measurable temperature that is more than that of 38 degrees celsius.

What are Kidney Stones Types?

  1. The most common type of kidney stones is calcium stones. These are usually made up of calcium and oxalate and sometimes these are made up of calcium and phosphate too.

  2. When the urine is too acidic then in such cases the uric acid stones are formed. These can either be a combination of themselves or with calcium.

  3. Due to certain types of infection in the urinary tract the struvite stones are formed. The bacteria that caused infection can build up the ammonia in the urine. These stones are formed as a combination of ammonium, phosphate, and magnesium. 

  4. The body produces a natural chemical called cystine, due to this reason cystine stones are formed in the body. These are very rare but are caused due to the leakage of cystine from the kidneys into the urine. It is a genetic disorder as well. 

Diagnosing and Medication

Before diagnosing any disease knowing the health history is important.

  1. Blood tests are to be done for calcium, electrolytes, uric acid, and phosphorus concentration detection.

  2. BUN - Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine for the functioning of the kidney.

  3. To check the crystals, white cells, blood, and bacteria urinalysis are done.

  4. Examination of the type of stone.

In the initial stages or to the small-sized kidney stones, drinking lots of water can increase the flow of urine, which removes or helps to break the kidney stone in urethra. 

  • Lithotripsy: 

Sound waves are used to break down the large stones that make them easy to flow through the ureter into the bladder. Light anesthesia is given to the patient and it may also cause bleeding around the kidneys and the nearby organs.

  • Tunnel Surgery: 

This is done only when the stones are damaging the kidneys or stones are too large to pass through the ureter or when the pain is excess and is not able to manage. In this, the surgeon removes the stone by creating a small incision on the back.

  • Ureteroscopy: 

An instrument called a ureteroscope is used to remove the stones that are stuck in the ureter or bladder. 

  • Kidney stone medicine depends on the pain that is experienced, the size and stage in which the kidney stones are developing, the reason, and the type. The antibiotics are given depending on the above-mentioned reasons.


Drinking lots of water can reduce the concentration of urine, so being well hydrated is important. Consumption of high sugar levels and high corn syrup should be avoided. Consuming more fruits and vegetables can make the urine less acidic. The animal proteins are involved in the addition of acid to the urine which in turn causes kidney stones. Reduce the excess amount of salt in the diet. 


By analyzing the kidney stones meaning, we understood that it causes a lot of pain and can be treated without medication at the initial stage and if neglected it can damage the kidneys. The chances of increasing the risk of an increase in the number of stones in the kidneys may increase. So maintaining the proper diet is important. In fact, consuming anything more than the required can become more harmful and can be toxic.

Want to read offline? download full PDF here
Download full PDF
Is this page helpful?

FAQs on Kidney Stone

1. What are Kidney Stones? 

Ans: Kidney stones definition is as follows, The collection of salt and minerals that are made up of uric acid or calcium forms a hard structure in the kidney.

2. What is a Kidney Stone Normal Size?

Ans: The kidney stones size may range from a size of a grain to the size of a pearl. 80% of the time the stones can be removed naturally if the size is less than the normal size of 4mm which requires a month to pass through. The stones that range up to the size of 4-6 mm can take up to 45days to pass through. Whereas the stones that are greater than the size of 6mm need medications to remove.