A flower forms an important part of a plant. This flower is structured for the purpose of reproduction. Not only does it serve in the biological process, but it also is used in our various day to day activities. Different types of flowers are used, for example, as a decorative item as bouquets for celebrations, weddings, events, home decor, as a present, it is present in our gardens, in religious ceremonies, etc. A flower makes up for the attractiveness of a plant due to its beautiful smell and its vibrant and appealing appearance. A flower plays a major role in plants.
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Flowers growing from a plant may grow in clusters or as individuals. The inflorescence is the term given to the arrangement of a group of flowers around a floral axis. There are two types of inflorescence - Racemose and Cymose.
Herein, branching of flowers is laterally along the floral axis. Moreover, the development of flowers is in an acropetal pattern as well as the growth of the floral axis is continuous.
In the Racemose Inflorescence type, the flowers grow on the floral axis laterally placed.
In this type of inflorescence, the flowers grow following the basipetal formation, and every floral axis ends with flowers. The basipetal pattern of growth is followed in the flowers herein under the Cymose Inflorescence.
Inside the compound inflorescence pattern, the main axis one extends up to twice inside the cymose inflorescence pattern.
In the cyathium inflorescence, it consists of an involucre which is shaped like a cup and contains glands which secrete nectar. The involucre envelopes a female flower within it. There are several male flowers surrounding the female flower.
The Verticillaster inflorescence is like a dichasial cyme formation in a condensed cluster and contains sessile and subsessile flowers.
In the hypanthodium inflorescence, the receptacle is known to develop a hollow cavity and consists of an apical opening which is kept safe by the presence of scales.
As we know, a flower constitutes the reproductive system of a plant. As the reproductive part, it ensures the continuance of a species of plant by the process called reproduction.
As we have already studied, a flower makes up for an especially important part of a plant. Be it biological or in the way of appearance. As the biological role, it helps in the birth of offspring and continuity of a plant species. This process is known as reproduction.
A flower is made up of two organs, which are known as the two accessory organs, respectively called the calyx and corolla, and there are two reproductive organs, namely, androecium and gynoecium. These 4 whorls consisting of the accessory organs and the reproductive organs are set up in the formation of a stalk known as the receptacle or the thalamus.
A flower can be classified into several groups on the basis of their number and the presentation of their whorls, symmetry, floral appendages, amongst many other things. On the basis of the presence of the number of whorls, a flower can be categorized as bisexual or unisexual. A unisexual flower is made up of the calyx, corolla, and androecium or gynoecium whereas, a bisexual flower, on the other hand, is composed of all the four whorls present i. e, the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium.
A flower can be categorized into the following- hypogynous, perigynous, and epigynous categories on the basis of the arrangement of the three whorls, namely, calyx, corolla, and androecium according to the ovary on the receptacle.
1. What Are The Flowering Plants?
Flowering plants are present in a variety and are extremely diverse in nature. There are around 300,000 species known to mankind. They are also termed as angiosperms and create fruits that contain seeds in them. It is said that these flowering plants came into existence through the evolution of gymnosperms during the period of Triassic and that 140 million years ago, the first flowering plant came into existence.
These flowering plants are known to contribute to the biological products and help in the continuity of species by pro-creating through the method of pollination. Pollination is the process in which the pollen grains are transferred from the male flowers' anther to the female flowers' stigma. Fertilization takes place, and then the seed is formed
2. What Are The Different Types of Flowers?
In this kind of a flower, the three whorls are inferior to the ovary. In the hypogynous flower, the ovary is kept in a position higher on the thalamus, and the rest of the parts lie under it. Examples of this kind of flower are - Tomato, tulip, brinjal, amongst many more.
In this type of flower, the ovary is positioned in the centre, and the rest of the four whorls are placed at around the same position. In the perigynous flower, unlike the hypogynous flower, the ovary is not superior to the other parts but is actually half superior and half inferior. A few examples of this kind of flower are, namely, rose, cherry, peach, etc.
In the epigynous flower, unlike the other two parts where the ovary maintains a position of superiority, the ovary in this flower is in an inferior position to the other three parts present. In this, the ovary is completely engulfed by the thalamus, and the rest of the three whorls constitute the space above it. Some examples of this kind of flower are - daffodil, cucumber, etc.