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Improvement in Food Resources

Food is one of the essential requirements for all living beings and Organisms. Food provides various nutrients such as fats, protein, carbohydrate, Minerals, and vitamins. The main sources of Food are animal husbandry and Agriculture. India is a nation that is strongly oriented to Agriculture but still there is a lack of Food owing to the rising population. 

There are different ways in which the lack of Food for people can be prevented. One is improving production efficiency.  The 2nd is providing Food access to all the people that live in the Food deserts, and finally people must have the sufficient funds for buying Food. 

Green Revolution

The Green Revolution is the project that was launched in various countries, especially poor nations, for increasing the production of Food through the use of proper irrigation, improved seeds, and modern technology. 

Types of Crops

There are a wide range of different types of Crops that are manufactured in India. The primary types of Crops grown in India include Cereals, Pulse, Oil seeds, and Vegetables.. The Cereals: Millet, Rice, Wheat, Sorghum, and Maize provide us with Carbohydrates. The Pulses: lentil, gram, pigeon pea, black gram, pea, and Green gram provide us with the proteins. Oil seeds: Mustard, linseed, castor, sunflower, ground nut, soya bean, and sesame provide us with the fats. The fruits, vegetables, and spices give us vitamins & Minerals. 

There are different types of crop season in India. The different Crops need varying weather conditions and different photo-periods for the efficient growth and the completion of their life-cycle. There are two distinct and main seasons that exist in the country: Kharif season and Rabi season. The kharif season is between June and October and involves the rainy season. The monsoon provides more water and the main kharif season Crops grown in India are Green gram, black gram, paddy, soya bean, maize, rice, and pigeon pea. The rabi season falls between November and April and the Crops grown in this period require less water. The main rabi season Crops grown in India include gram, wheat, linseed, mustard, and peas. 

Nutrient Management

The plants also need specific elements for the growth similar to other Organisms. Some of the sources and the nutrients that they provide includes Air- Oxygen, and carbon. Water - Oxygen, and hydrogen. The soil gives macronutrients and micronutrients. The macronutrients given by soil are potassium, nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and sulphur. The micronutrients provided by soil are: Zinc, copper, iron, chlorine, boron, manganese, and molybdenum. 

The lack of nutrients has harmful effects including lack of proper growth, less resistance to the diseases, and no proper flowers and fruits. The addition or use of fertilizers and manure in the soil helps in increasing the plant nutrients plus organic matter within the soil. 

Food is one of the elementary needs for all living organisms. Food provides nutrients like carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins and minerals.


Sources of Food: Agriculture & animal husbandry. India is a country oriented towards agriculture but still lacks food because of the growing population.


How to Prevent

  1. Improve the efficiency of production.

  2. Food access for people living in food deserts (urban neighborhoods and rural towns).

  3. People should have sufficient money to buy food.


Green Revolution

Revolution is a project launched in many poor countries to increase food production by use of modern technology, proper irrigation, improved seeds, etc.


White Revolution

White Revolution is a project implemented in India to increase production of milk in India. 


White Revolution is a project launched in India to increase production of milk in India. 


Types of Crops

Cereals (wheat, Millet, Rice, Maize, Sorghum) supply us carbohydrates.


Pulse (pigeon pea, lentil, gram, pea, black gram, green gram) supply us proteins.


Oil Seeds (castor, mustard, linseed, sunflower, soya bean, ground nut sesame,) supply us fats.


Vegetables, spices, fruits supply us vitamins & minerals.


Crop Season

Different crops require different conditions (temp, moisture, etc.), different Photo-periods (duration of sunlight) for their growth and completing the life cycle.


There Are Following Two Distinct Season Crops

Kharif Season

  • June - October (Rainy season).

  • Monsoon requires more water.

  • Paddy, black gram, green gram, soyabean, pigeon pea, maize,  and rice are Kharif season crops.

Rabi Season

  • Nov - April.

  • Needs less water.

  • Wheat, linseed, gram, peas, mustard are rabi season crops.


Improvement in Crop Yield

Yield increases in the same time period as production increases from the same amount of land.


Approaches That Improve Crop Yield Are as Follows

  1. Crop Variety Improvement

  2. Crop Production Improvement

  3. Crop Protection Improvement

Crop Variety Improvement

Some of the factors that can be used to improve the variety are:

  • Good & Healthy Seeds.

  • Hybridization Technology: It is cross - breeding process-breeding two different crop varieties to produce a new variety with good properties of both crops.

  • Genetic Improvement: In genetic improvement, a crop 's genes are modified so as to retain the desired properties and suppress undesired properties.


Improved seed properties to be owned by:

  • Should give high yield.

  • Improved Quality: Should supply more nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins etc.

  • Biotic Resistance: Disease resistance due to living microbes–organisms, insects.

  • Abiotic Resistance: Non-problem resistance-living things such as drought, wind, heat, cold, frost, water logging, salinity (excess salt).

  • Less Maturity Duration: Cutting for short duration requires less cost and more crop rounds.

  • Wider Adaptability: Crops that can develop under different conditions would help to establish high production.

  • Desired Agronomic Traits: Crops containing desired agronomic characteristics (height, branching, leaves), establish high production.


Crop Production Improvement

It involves various farming practices to achieve higher standards of crop production.

  1. Nutrient Management

  2. Irrigation

  3. Cropping Patterns

Nutrient Management

Plants also require certain elements for their growth, as do other organisms. These are also Nutrients.




Carbon, oxygen


Hydrogen, oxygen


1. Macronutrients: nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, Sulphur, phosphorus.

2. Micronutrients: iron, , zinc, copper, molybdenum, chlorine, manganese, boron


Macronutrients: Macronutrients are large amounts of the nutrients required by plants.


Micronutrients are small amounts of the nutrients required by small plants.


Harmful Effects of Lack of Nutrients

  1. No proper growth.

  2. Low resistance to diseases.

  3. No proper fruits and flowers.


Manure & Fertilizer

The addition of manures and fertilizers into the soil will increase plant nutrients and organic matter in the soil.



It is known as the decomposition of excreta and plant waste from the animals. Manure contains essentially small amounts of organic matter and also some nutrients. The manures are of three types, based on the biological material used.

  1. Compost: Animal excreta (like cow dung, etc.), kitchen waste, leftovers from plants, waste wood, etc., are long left in the pit. They slowly decompose to form compost. They use this compost as manure. This is called composting.

  2. Vermi Compost: The earthworms are left in the pit to make the decomposition process swift. Earthworms are eating up the waste and excreting organic matter as excreta. The thus formed compost is called vermi-compost. This is a vermin process-composing

  3. Green Manure: Rapidly growing plants like sun hemp, guar is cultivated. They are then mulched by ploughing into the soil. They deteriorate to form organic matter. The main plants are cultivated after sometime. Old plant remains enrich the soil with nitrogen and phosphorous.


How Does Manure Helps?

  • It provides plenty of organic matter making soil porous.

  • It generally increases soil fertility.

  • It contains several tiny amounts of nutrients.

  • As it is made from waste products, it cleanses the environment.



Fertilizers are chemicals which are produced in factories. They are highly nutrient richm chemicals, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.


They provide large quantities of nutrients and thus ensure better plant growth.


Disadvantages of Fertilizers

  • Beings chemical fertilizers can harm the micro - organism and soil insects.

  • Fertilizers give little organic matter.

  • Long-term overuse of fertilizers can damage soil fertility.

  • If excessive irrigation is executed, some fertilizers may flow into water bodies with excess water. They will cause water pollution, as fertilizers are chemicals.




Easily made using animal & plant waste

Made in factories in well defined way

No harmful effect as fully natural.

Side effects as it is a chemical.

Provides mainly organic matter.

Provides mainly nutrients.

Good for long term soil fertility

Not good for long term soil fertility if used in excessive amounts.

Not as effective as fertilizers.

Very effective in obtaining a fast result





For water, we can not rely on rain, because it is not fully reliable. A proper irrigation system will ensure that crops get adequate and timely water. That will result in greater yield.


Some Most Commonly Used Irrigation Systems

Wells: These are installed in the region where adequate groundwater is available. They come in two different styles:

Dug Well: Water is collected in the dug wells by bullock-operated devices or by pumps. That method is inexpensive.

Tube Well: It provides for irrigation with very deep underground water. Motor pump used for water lifting. High cost of this method is required.

Canals: Man - made rivers or water canals-reservoirs. They are specifically designed to take water to different parcels of agriculture.

River Lift System: In this network water is taken by pumps directly from the rivers. This system is useful for irrigation in riverfront areas.

Tanks: Tanks are small reservoirs used for storing the rainwater.

Rain Water Harvesting: The harvesting of rain water is an accumulation of rain water in tanks for later use. That also prevents erosion of the soil. Soil erosion is unwanted How to flowing water from top layer of soil. High cost of this method is required.


Crop Patterns

Various patterns are employed to optimize crop field yield.

  • Mixed Cropping

  • Inter Cropping

  • Crop Rotation


Mixed Cropping

Seeds of two or more crops are combined in this pattern and distributed into fields..


How Crops Are Chosen?

  • Should it require similar environmental conditions such as heat, growth temperature.

  • Should require different nutrients, in order to use all soil nutrients.


Advantage: Lowest harm. If one crop fails, then others might survive.


Inter Cropping

This is an advanced form of mixed crop production. Two or more crops are cultivated in a definite pattern on the same field. Few one rows followed by few other rows.


Examples: soybean + maize, finger millet (bajra) +cowpea (lobia)


How Crops Are Chosen?

  • Similar environmental conditions such as rain, temp, should be needed. To grow.

  • Should require different nutrients, in order to use all soil nutrients.


Crop Rotation

Crop rotation is the method of growing different crops on the same filed one after another.


If the same crop is grown again and again on the same field, the same nutrients are again and again extracted from the soil. So we should select different crops so that all soil nutrients are used.


How Crops Are Chosen?

  • Environmental conditions

  • Nutrients required by crops.



  • Soil fertility is maintained.

  • Less use of fertilizers.

  • High yield.


Crop Protection Improvement

When the crop is in the field, it needs to be protected from weeds, insect pests and other conditions. These problems are controlled using the following methods.

  • Pest Control during Growth

  • Storage of Grains


Pest Control During Growth

Pest is any destructive organism that is able to destroy or damage crops or products obtained from it.


Pests Are of Many Types:

  1. Weeds: Unwanted plants like xanthium, parthenium, cyperinus rotundus are found in the cultivated field.

They compete for food, space, and light on ideal crops. The desired crops therefore, get less nutrients, and are adversely affected.

  1. Insects: Insects can harm plants in such ways as to:

    • They can cut down plant roots, stems, and leaves.

    • They can get into plants ' fruits, flowers and steam which destroys them.

    • They can suck out plant food and water.

  1. Pathogens: Any organism that can cause disease is referred to as pathogens. Example; bacteria , fungi, virus.

Plants are able to derive these organisms from soil, air or water. These-caused diseases can spread in all field crops and destroy the whole cultivation.


Killing Pests

Different types of pesticides are sprayed over the plants to consume various pests. Those chemicals are poisonous. Herbicides are killing Weeds. Insecticides kill insects. Fungicides kill champignons.


Disadvantages of Using Pesticides

  • Pollution

  • Toxic to many useful plants and animals.


Weed Control

Weed control means precautionary measures to avoid the growth of weeds.

  • Manual removal of weeds.

  • Seed Bed Preparation: The fields are thoroughly ploughed. Thus weed seeds come on top and will germinate in a couple of days. Then, they can be removed before specific crops are planted.

  • Crop Rotation: Such crops kill weeds in the field.

  • Proper Sowing Time: conditions like Warm and humid climate not favourable.

  • Inter Cropping: The presence of multiple crops makes more efficient use of environmental resources.


Storage of Grains

They are stored in secure storage to get seasonal food throughout the year.

Biotic problems: Living organisms such as insects , birds, mites, bacteria , and fungi.

Abiotic problems: Moisture, inappropriate temperature etc. due to non - living factors.

These factors affect degradation of the quality, weight loss, color change, germinability loss.


  • Proper Service and Warehouse Cleaning.

  • Goods are dried before shipping.

  • To kill pests and insects, fumigation (drugs that form toxic fumes that can kill pests)


Organic Farming

The use of fertilisers and pesticides has its own disadvantages. They cause pollution, and long - term damage to soil fertility. Grains, fruits and vegetables obtained may contain a small number of harmful chemicals.


Organic farming is a farming technique without the use of chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides, or very little.


Process of Organic Farming

  • Use of dung.

  • Use of bio fertilizers: Blue-algae (organism) green. They transfer the nitrogen from soil to atmosphere. Some micro - organism can kill pests as well. They are deliberately put into soil to combat pests. We act as bioengraisers.

  • Use of bio pesticides: Neem and the turmeric can destroy some pests.

  • Weed & Pest control systems are being implemented. So pesticide use is not needed.

  • Using different crop types, such as mixed cropping, crop rotation and intercropping.


Animal Husbandry

Animal husbandry is the effective scientific management of domestic animals for obtaining from them food and other useful products.


Cattle Farming

Purpose of Cattle Farming

  • For getting milk.

  • Ploughing fields.

  • Bull Cart for transportation.


Types of Cattle

  • Cow (Bos indicus).

  • Buffalo (Bos bubalis).


Milch Animals: These include animals which produce milk (female cattle).


Draught Animals: Animals which do not produce milk and which are used for livestock.


Lactation Period

Female cattle give milk to calf (baby) after birth. The duration of time she is giving milk is called the lactation period. Typical of a year or less.


How to Increase Lactation Period?

  • Cross Breeding: Cross breeds are acquired by hybridization or the crossing of animals of various species. The produced offsprings are called "Hybrids." Hybrids exhibit good parent characters such as high lactation period , high disease resistance.

  • Proper diet.


Care of Cattle


  • Roofed, well ventilated shelter to protect against rain, heat and cold.

  • Routine cleaning of cattle skin.

  • Sloping shelter floor for water avoidance-logging.


  • Roughage containing mainly fibre.

  • Concentrates which contain proteins.

  • Micronutrient-containing foods (vitamins and minerals) for improved milk production.

Proper food is necessary for good health, and special diet during lactation.


Disease can cause death, and can reduce the production of milk.

  • Parasites are small organisms which live inside or outside another organism's body (host). They derive food from host body.

  • External parasites on cattle 's skin cause skin disease

  • Internal parasites such as worms cause problems in the stomach and intestine, and fluids cause problems in the liver.

  • Bacteria, virus causes infectious diseases (diseases that can be transmitted easily from one to the next).


Poultry Farming

Poultry Farming is done for meat and eggs. Both of these provide our diet with protein.

Broilers: Birds which are grown to get meat are called broilers.

Layers: Birds raised to acquire an egg are known as layers. They can be used after 20 weeks when attempts have been made to lay eggs on sexual maturity.


Breeding is Done to Improve the Properties Following in the Hens:

  • More and better-quality chicks.

  • Low maintenance.

  • Breeding is done for the development of dwarf broilers (meat-birds). The biggest expense on poultry farms is feeding costs. Dwarf broilers need less food, and can cut costs by 30%. They can also tolerate more heat.


Management Practices in Poultry Farms

  • Proper diet: Layers also eat a diet of fibres. Broilers need protein - rich diet, fat, and vitamin A and K.

  • Maintain proper temperature.

  • Hygienic setting and proper sanitation.

  • Regular spraying of disinfectants to kill bacteria , viruses, champignons and parasites that otherwise can cause disease.

  • Controlling quality canvass. Canvass consistency refers to the ratio of flesh to bone in chicken.

  • Avoid mortality.

  • Providing adequate bird space. This is critical to their proper growth.


Fish Production

The production of fish is a perfect protein source for our diet.Fish production is of two types:


Finned Fish Production / True Fish Production: Cartilaginous and bony fish production and management such as pomphret, tuna, cod, catla, prawns, rohu, mrigal, etc.


Unfinned Fish Production: Shellfish production like prawns, mollusks. Fishing is of two types, depending on the way fish are caught:


Capture Fishing: Living fish are naturally captured in different bodies of water.


Culture Fishing: Fish of desired variety are cultivated with utmost care in confined areas to obtain maximum yield. This is known as aquaculture too. You can do aquaculture in oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds etc. When it is finished it is called the oceans.


Marine Fishing

Fishing at sea includes the production of fish in ponds, rivers , lakes, reservoirs.

India has an incredible 7500 km long coastline.

Popular sea fishes include pomphret, mackerel, tuna, sardines, duck bombay. Many costly fish live in the sea, such as mullets, prawns, musks, algae, oysters.

Areas of high fish population in the sea can be found using satellites. Echo-Sounders are used as well

Areas of high fish population in the sea can be found using satellites. Echo-Sounders are used as well.


Inland Fishing

It includes freshwater fish production (e.g. ponds, rivers , lakes, reservoirs) and brackish water (e.g., estuaries, lagoons).

Compared to marine fishing, this method of fishing gives less yield.


Composite Fish Culture

  • Single fish pond variations 5 to 6.

  • They are selected so as not to fight for food. They should have different demands on food


Bee – Keeping

To obtain honey & wax, it's the custom of keeping, caring & handling honeybees on a large scale.


Often farmers use bee – keeping for small extra income. There are also large farms which are called apiaries / bee farms.

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FAQs on Food Resources

1. How Can We Improve the Crop Variety?

Improvement of the crop variety may be achieved through the selection process. The selection criteria are high yield, disease resistance, fertiliser response, climate tolerance, etc. Improving crop production is protecting crops that grow or have been harvested.

2. Why Do We Need Improvement in Food Resources?

For the following reasons we need to boost the food resources:

1) To increase the nutritional value and consistency of the food.

2) Keeping the food and crops free from diseases and pests.

3) To reduce the food products' costs and increase their availability.

3. What is manure and the different types of manure?

Manure is the decomposition of plant waste and excreta from animals. The manure contains some nutrients and little quantities of organic matter. The different types of manure that are available for farming include  Green manure, compost, and vermicompost. Each of the different types of manure has its own characteristics that contribute to improving the productivity of Crops and increasing the nutrients of the plants that are grown in the farms.

4. What are the disadvantages associated with fertilizers?

The chemical fertilizers can potentially harm the soil insects and microOrganisms. The fertilizers also give a little amount of organic matter. The long-term usage of the fertilizers can potentially damage soil fertility. If excessive irrigation is implemented then some of the fertilizers might flow into the water bodies through excess water. This can lead to water pollution since fertilizers are chemicals. These are the primary drawbacks associated with the use of chemical fertilizers. 

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