Identification of Stages of Gamete Development

Study of T.S. of Mammalian Ovary 

Every mammalian ovary is a reproductive organ in females inside which sex cells like eggs or ova are produced. The ovaries come in pairs and prudence hormones in addition to sex cells. These hormones trigger the process of reproduction in females. While ovaries are the primary reproductive organs in females, the male counterparts have a primary reproductive organ known as testes. Each ovary consists of an outer cortex that contains follicles, interstitial cells and oocytes. There is also an inner medulla which contains fibrous tissues, blood vessels and nerves. The T.S.of the mammalian ovary or transverse section of the ovary is studied and identified through experimental slides. 

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T.S. of Mammalian Ovary Under Microscope 

Aim: To study and identify the T.S. Of mammalian ovary under permanent slides.

Apparatus: Permanent slides of T.S. or transverse section of the ovary, microscope

Observation: Any mammalian ovary has a solid structure to it and is bounded by epithelium along with a thick layer of fibrous tissue, also known as tunica albuginea. The ovary has an outer cortex and an inner medulla. The T.S.of mammalian ovary reveals the rounded oval bodies, also known as ovarian follicles. 

The follicles develop from stage 1 to Graffian follicles to corpus luteum. The development of the follicles is the necessary study of the transverse section of an ovary. 


Study of T.S. of Mammalian Testis 

The male reproductive organ has two primary structures. A pair of testes and some accessory reproductive structures. An adult mammalian testes perform two essential functions. The first is spermatogenesis, and the second is male sex hormone production. The main male hormones produced in the testis is testosterone. There are a few common diseases linked with the testes such as testicular cancer, testicular trauma, infertility issues, swelling, hypogonadism and more. All these diseases are linked with bruising,  clotting and severe pain.


T.S. of Testis Under Microscope 

Aim:  To study and identify the T.S. Of mammalian ovary under a microscope through permanent slides. 

Apparatus: Permanent slides of T.S. or transverse section of the testis, microscope

Observation: Same as that of the T.S. of mammalian ovary, the T.S. of mammalian testis also has a thick fibrous tissue covering it known as tunica albuginea. Tubules are present inside the interstitial tissues. The formation of gametes in the T.S. of mammalian testis starts from Spermatogonia to Spermatozoa. This last stage is sperm formation. Majority of the sperms have Sertoli cells embedded in them. 


A Few Precautions Must be Taken While Performing the Experiments: 

  • Make sure to wear laboratory gloves. 

  • Use forceps and other instruments while handling the organs. 

  • Make sure the focus of the microscopic lens is adjusted well enough.

  • Once the experiment is over, store the slides carefully and clean the microscopic lens. 

All of the experiments mentioned above are performed by using the transverse section of the testis and transverse section of an ovary of mice and grasshoppers. The anatomy of the two organs remains the same for all mammals.

 

Solved Examples

1. Difference Between Testis and Ovary. 

The Difference Between Testis and Ovary are Mentioned as Follows: 

Topic

Testes

Ovary

Gender

It is the male gonad

It is the female gonad.

Produces 

It produces Spermatozoa 

It produces Ova

Hormone production 

Testosterone 

Oestrogen and Progesterone 

Location 

Outside the body  

Inside the body 


2. Functions of Testis and Ovary.

Both the testes and the ovaries produce sperms and ova in the males and females respectively. Along with these feet also produce hormones required for reproduction. 


Fun Facts About The T.S. of Mammalian Ovary 

  • Ovaries are grey-pinkish in colour. A woman’s ovaries are capable of holding millions of eggs at a time. 

  • The size of the ovaries changes along with the maturity of a female body. 

  • During the reproductive phase, the ovaries become more significant in size. 

  • Once a woman reaches menopause, the uterus holds only 400-500 eggs which are not suitable for fertilization anymore. 

  • The eggs fertilized inside the ovary during the reproductive phase. 

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Function of an Ovary in the Human Body? 

Ans: The ovary is the primary reproductive organ in females. It releases an ovum which travels down the Fallopian tube and into the uterus. It is in the uterus that the egg gets fertilized by a sperm. Another very important function of the ovaries in the human body is the secretion of two hormones, namely, oestrogen and progesterone. The hormones are useful for the development of the human body and the various female characteristics. Ovulation is the process during which the ovaries release eggs. Often stress and other factors may lead to irregular menstrual cycles that delay the process of ovulation. 

2. What are the Different Diseases Linked with the Female Ovary? 

Ans: The main problems or diseases associated with the ovary are cysts. The polycystic ovary syndrome popularly referred to as PCOS is a hormonal disorder causing the ovary to enlarge and having small cysts on the outer edge. The underlying cause of this disease is unknown, but a few genetic factors and even some environmental factors may also lead to this disease. The symptoms of this disease are irregular menstruation, spotting, heavy or light bleeding at irregular periods, oily skin, acne, dark patches on the head and even loss of hair. Some PCOS patients are said to have experienced obesity and excess body hair growth too.