Gametes are also known as reproductive cells or more commonly the sex cells that are meant to unite during the process of sexual reproduction. These reproductive cells or gametes are an important part of the entire process as they help in the formation of an entirely new cell that is known as the zygote.
here, students are going to learn about important topics such as the meaning and definition of gamete, gamete formation, and how they are produced in the first place.
Gametes are also referred commonly to as sex cells. These are basically known as the reproductive cells that are a part of the human reproductive system. These gametes are the ones that help in the process of sexual reproduction and are responsible for the formation of a completely new cell that is referred to as a zygote. These are the haploid cells where every single one of the gametes tends to carry a particular copy of the chromosomes. This is all you need to know about gamete definition.
What is Gamete in Biology?
When it comes to the gametes meaning in biology, there are certain details that students need to know about. The male gametes that are present in the human reproductive system are known as sperm and the female gametes that are present in the reproductive system are known as ova or eggs. These are the reproductive cells that are commonly an outcome of the process known as meiosis. Sperms tend to be motile and have a structure that resembles a long tail-like projection. This is known as the flagellum. Ova or eggs on the other hand are not motile and are produced in a large number as compared to the sperms or the male gametes.
During this particular type of cell division that takes place, the parent cell that is diploid will have 2 different copies of each chromosome and there will be 1 process of DNA replication. Then it is commonly followed by 2 different cycles of the process of nuclear division. That, in turn, produced 4 different diploid cells. These cells then go on along for gamete production.
Examples of Gametes
For a clearer idea, we are going to provide some examples of gametes in biology. Sperms and ova are considered to be the most common examples of gametes. There is a distinct difference in the shape and the size of these 2 reproductive cells or gametes. However, there is one similarity and it is that they are completely haploid in nature.
One of the most important things to keep in mind about gametes is that they are capable of experiencing both internal as well as external fertilization. However, there are certain entities in nature that tend to produce these cells in a singular entity. These organisms are known to be hermaphrodites. But then the majority of the organisms that tend to reproduce sexually only produce one type of gametes.
So, how are gametes formed? Gametes are formed as a result of a 2-step process that is known as meiosis. The entire process takes place where the cells are divided through meiosis and this, in turn, produces the gametes. The entire process that consists of two steps will result in the formation of 4 different haploid daughter cells.
In the haploid cells, there is just one particular set of chromosomes that is present in these haploid cells. The haploid gametes of both male and female type combine in the process of fertilization and the end result is a zygote. One of the characteristics features of the zygote is that it is diploid in nature. The meaning of diploid is that the zygote has 2 sets of chromosomes present in it. Another important detail to keep in mind about the process of fertilization is that it could either be internal or external in nature. The zygote is known as the future foetus that will lead to the formation of offspring.
Different Modes of Sexual Reproduction
An essential factor in the mode of sexual reproduction is the size as well as the shape of the gametes. There are certain male as well as female gametes that tend to have the same shape and size. However, there are certain others that tend to vary by a very huge margin for sure.
In certain species consisting of algae and fungi, there is a presence of both female and male gametes that are of the same shape and size and hence are motile as well. With the unification of 2 similar types of gametes, the process is known as isogamy. However, the process where two different types of gametes tend to unite is called anisogamy or heterogamy.