Fucus can be described as a genus of brown algae which are mostly seen throughout the world in the intertidal zones of the rocky seashores. Fucus is a large multicellular organism that is most common in relatively cool waters, intertidal and shallow waters, and is well-adapted in life. Fucus belongs to a small group of eukaryotes who had a phylum of their own long ago, the Phaeophyta. Fucus is typically multicellular having three distinct organs which include a holdfast through which the organism is attached to a substrate, flattened stems or blades which help in carrying out photosynthesis, and air bladders which help in carrying the blades upward in the water column.
Fucus is a brown algae genus that can be found in the intertidal zones of rocky seashores all over the world. Some species of Fucus are fucus crispus, fucus serratus etc. Just like fucus laminaria is another genus of brown seaweed in the order Laminariales(kelp) that comprises 31 native species of the North Atlantic and northern pacific ocean. Along with Fucus Kelps are also brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales which consists of 30 different genera. Kelp is a heterokont, not a plant, despite its appearance.
With an uneven or disc-shaped holdfast or haptera, the thallus is perpetual. The thallus is dichotomous or sub-pinnately branched, flattened, and has a prominent midrib on the upright section.
Some species have pairs of gas-filled pneumatocysts (air-vesicles), one on each side of the midrib. Cryptostomata and caicos stomata are found on the thallus's erect part (sterile surface cavities).
Because of abrasion of the tissue lateral to the midrib, the thallus' base is stipe-like, and it is held to the rock by a holdfast.
In the apices of the terminal branches, the gametangia develop in conceptacles implanted in receptacles. It's possible that they're monoecious or dioecious.
These algae have a straightforward life cycle and only generate one type of thallus, which can reach a maximum size of 2 meters.
The reproductive cells are contained in fertile holes called conceptacles, which are immersed in the receptacles toward the ends of the branches.
Following meiosis, the female and male reproductive organs, oogonia and antheridia, generate egg cells and sperm, which are discharged into the water and fertilized.
The zygote that results develops into a diploid plant.
This is in contrast to the flowering plant's life cycle, in which the egg cells and sperm are created by a haploid multicellular generation, though at a far reduced level, and the egg cells are fertilized within the parent plant's ovules before being released as seeds.
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Bladderwrack, black tang, rockweed, bladder fucus, sea oak, cut weed, dyers fucus, red fucus, and rock wrack are all popular names for Fucus vesiculosus, a seaweed found along the coastlines of the North Sea, the western Baltic Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It was the first source of iodine, discovered in 1811, and was widely used to treat goiter, a thyroid gland enlargement caused by a lack of iodine.
Species: F. vesiculosus
Fucus vesiculosus fronds reach 90 cm (35 in) in length and 2.5 cm (1.0 in) in width, with a pronounced midrib throughout.
A basal disc-shaped holdfast secures it. It features virtually spherical air bladders that are generally paired on either side of the mid-rib, but young plants may lack them.
The frond is dichotomously branched and has a smooth edge.
It's sometimes mistaken for Fucus spiralis, with which it hybridizes, and it's related to Fucus serratus.
Fucus vesiculosus plants are dioecious.
In most cases, gametes are released into calm seawater, and the eggs are fertilized externally to generate a zygote.
Shortly after being released from the container, the eggs are fertilized.
Research on the Maine coast found that both exposed and protected areas had 100% fertilization. In the Baltic Sea, populations that are constantly submerged are extremely susceptible to stormy conditions.
Because the gametes are only released when water velocities are low, high fertilization success is attained.
The thallus has an irregular or shaped holdfast and is perennial. Subpinnately branched or dichotomous, distinctly flattened midribs are the features of the erect portion of the thallus. In some species, gas-filled pneumatocysts are present on either one side of the midrib. Caecostomata and cryptostomata are present on the erect portion of the thallus. Since there is an abrasion of the tissue that is lateral to the midrib, the base of the thallus is like a stipe. In the concepts which are embedded in the receptacles of the final branches, the gametangia take place. They can either be monoecious or dioecious. These algae produce only one type of thallus and possess a simple life cycle where the maximum size of the thallus is 2m.
Near the end of the branches, the fertile cavities and the conceptacles are immersed. The egg cells and the sperms are produced after the meiosis oogonia and antheridia which are eventually released in the sea where the fertilization takes place. A diploid plant is developed from the resulting zygote.
Fucus vesiculosus is marketed as a dietary supplement.
Mucilage, algin, mannitol, fucitol, beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, volatile oils, iodine, bromine, potassium, and other minerals are among the primary chemical ingredients.
Fucus vesiculosus consumption can produce platelet inhibition, which can increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin (Coumadin). It is best to avoid it prior to surgery.
The iodine in Fucus vesiculosus may cause allergic reactions in certain persons.
It may slow down blood clotting and may lead to an increase in the risk of bruising or bleeding in people having bleeding disorders.
It may lead to infertility in the case of women.
It has iodine which can cause allergic reactions in the case of sensitive people.
It has the tendency to affect blood sugar levels and can make the blood sugar level too low.
Fucus serratus, often known as toothed wrack or serrated wrack, is a North Atlantic seaweed.
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Species: F. serratus
Fucus serratus is a strong alga that looks like Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus spiralis and is olive-brown in color.
It grows up to 180 centimeters (6 feet) long from a discoid holdfast.
Flat, bifurcating, and up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) long, including a small stipe, the fronds are about 2 cm (0.8 in) wide, bifurcating, and up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) long. It has uneven and dichotomous branches.
The flattened blade has a pronounced midrib and the serrated edge of the fronds distinguishes it from related taxa.
It doesn't have air vesicles like Fucus vesiculosus, and it's also not spirally twisted like F. spiralis.
Plants with male and female receptacles are found on separate plants.
Cryptostomata — tiny cavities that produce colorless hyaluronic acid – can be seen on the lamina.
Conceptacles, which are submerged in receptacles near the branch terminals, form the reproductive bodies.
Oogonia and antheridia are generated in these conceptacles, and after meiosis, the oogonia and antheridia are discharged.
The zygote develops, settles, and grows immediately into the diploid sporophyte plant after fertilization
The type of reproduction that takes place in most of the brown algae is sexual reproduction. The sporophyte stage is usually the dominant stage but in the case of some of the brown algae which show isomorphic alternation of generations and few brown algae are there where the dominant stage is gametophyte. The flagellated cells are common in all brown algae which include sperm, zoospores, and isogametes. These are mobile cells which when attached to the substrate grow into a new organism.
1. What are some of the uses of Fucus?
The most common type of seaweed is Fucus and the whole plant is used by people in order to make medicine. It can be used to treat conditions such as iodine deficiency, obesity, thyroid disorders, and many more. It is considered to be the best medicine for obesity and non-toxic goiter and is also very helpful in the treatment of exophthalmos. It is also used sometimes to improve digestion and reduce flatulence. In order to cure constipation and forehead pain, fucus can be used.
2. Why is Fucus used to study cell polarity?
Several species of Fucus are used to study cell polarity as model organisms since they have easily accessible apolar eggs. Fucus also possesses free-floating zygotes for the development of the growth axes, and the cell wall present in Fucus has the capability to establish and maintain the cell identity. Also, the fertilization that takes place in early Arabidopsis embryos is quite similar to that in Fucus embryos, therefore the findings from studying Fucus embryos might be pertinent to the higher plants.
3. What is the reason behind the brown color of Fucus?
The pigment Chlorophyll a is present in all the species of brown algae which is responsible for the plants and green algae for their green color. But in the case of the brown algae, there is a pigment called chlorophyll c which is responsible for giving the brown color to the plant. Along with this brown algae also consist of a pigment carotenoid which is known as fucoxanthin which ends up giving the brown algae their characteristic brown color.
4. How does Fucus make its food?
Fucus can undergo a process which is known as photosynthesis or the synthesis of photons with the help of which Fucus is able to produce sugars for itself. Fucus is able to carry out this process with the presence of structures known as chloroplasts in which certain pigments are present that have the capability to capture the sun’s energy and convert this light energy into chemical energy which is known as glucose. Glucose is used by the cells as their main source of energy.
5. What are some of the differences between brown algae and red algae?
Under the class Rhodophyceae, the red algae are grouped while under the class Phaeophyceae, the brown algae are grouped. In the case of red algae floridean starch is stored as food while in the case of brown algae laminarin and mannitol are stored as food. There are two flagella in the brown algae while in the case of the red algae no flagella are present.
To learn more about red algae students can visit Vedantu.
6. Which Pigment is Responsible for the Brown Color in Fucus?
Fucoxanthin, a pigment found in most brown algae, is responsible for the greenish-brown color that gives them their name. Apart from this, Chlorophyll a and c are also present in Fucus.
7. Why are Algae Considered Plant-Like?
The primary reason for this is that they contain chloroplasts, which make food via photosynthesis. However, they lack many other plant-like structures. Algae, for example, have no roots, stems, or leaves.
8. Are All Algae Seaweeds?
Seaweeds are a type of algae with a few unique traits. For example, all seaweed species are autotrophic, whereas some algal species rely on other sources of nourishment. Algae can be found in both freshwater and marine environments, whereas seaweeds can only be found in seawater.