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What is Estrogen?

MVSAT 2024

As the female body matures and reaches the stage of puberty, the production of progesterone and estrogen increases. Estrogen is defined as the sex hormone that females have. Estrogen and progesterone, both are responsible for providing certain physical characteristics in female bodies. These hormones also tend to play a very important role in the process of reproduction. 

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While the male bodies also produce estrogen, the amount is pretty small when compared to the females. In this article, students are going to learn about the hormone estrogen and estrogen function. 

Why is Estrogen Hormone Considered Important? 

The hormone named estrogen is rightfully called the sex hormone of the female body. Since this is a sex hormone, it plays a very important role in the reproduction process. This means it has a pivotal role in the creation of the ova or the eggs in the female reproductive system. These hormones also provide women with the physical characteristics and features that they have. 

Estrogen can be found in the body of a girl who is changing into a woman. This is the time when they reach puberty. Some of the changes that are seen in the female body due to the presence of estrogen are the growth in the size of their breasts and growth in underarm and pubic hair. It also assists at the beginning of the menstrual cycle in females. The estrogen hormone helps in controlling the menstrual cycle and hence is an important component during childbearing and childbirth. 

There are some other examples of estrogen function that are not commonly known. It has been found that estrogen can keep the levels of cholesterol in the body in control. It also assists in the protection of bone health in the case of men as well as women. A hormone like estrogen also has an effect on the brain and mood in females. It can affect the heart, skin, bones, as well as other tissues in the body. 

How does Estrogen Hormone Work? 

The ovaries that are known as the egg producers in the female reproductive system are the ones responsible for the secretion of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. These ovaries are the main sources from where the body is provided with the hormone. Apart from that, the adrenal glands that are present in the kidney also produce smaller amounts of estrogen. The fat tissue is also responsible for the production of small amounts of estrogen in the body. This hormone travels through the bloodstream and hence has the ability to reach anywhere in a female body. 

What goes Wrong with the Estrogen Levels? 

In some rare cases, the female body isn’t able to create the right level of estrogen that is needed. Hence, people who have this condition tend to take estrogen rich foods such as flaxseeds, soybeans, garlic, sesame seeds, peaches, etc. in order to raise the levels of estrogen in their bodies. There are also some cases where women tend to consume too much estrogen due to estrogen replacement therapy or birth control pills. Hence, it is important to keep track of all the symptoms that the body is showing in order to know whether the estrogen levels in the body are high or not. 

The body of females creates three different types of estrogen

  1. Estradiol (E2) is known to be the most common type of all and is secreted by women who are at the age of bearing children 

  2. Estriol (E3) is known to be the main type of estrogen that is secreted by the ovaries during the period of pregnancy.

  3. Estrone (E1) is the type of estrogen that will be created in the body after the women have gone through their menopausal stage. 

The estrogen levels go through phases of change during the entire period of a whole month. The highest levels of estrogens are produced during the middle of the menstrual cycle in females. The level of estrogen is dropped when the women reach menopause. 

Estrogen Function in Females 

Some of the cases where women have low levels of estrogen hormone in their bodies are during the periods of menopause. Low estrogen levels can cause symptoms such as delay in menstrual cycles, hot flashes, trouble while sleeping, thinning & dryness of the vagina, lessened sexual desire, mood swings, and dry skin. It is seen that some women tend to experience a condition that is known as menstrual migraine. Hence, with proper levels of estrogen, all these problems can be taken away. 

Estrogen Function in Males 

Just like in women, the levels of estrogen in men during the time of puberty also facilitate the different physical changes that are experienced by them. Some of the changes include facial and chest hair, muscle development, voice deepening, and so much more. Not to mention that it also helps in improving bone density in both genders. With proper levels of estrogen in their bodies, males can actually drop their levels of cholesterol and bring it to a normal level.


Estrogen is a highly functioning sex hormone that is produced in the body of both females and males during puberty. However, the amount of estrogen produced in males is a lot lower than in females. Hence, this hormone plays a very important role in facilitating all the important physical characteristics that can be seen in females such as large breasts, growth of hair, and the basic physical appearance. 

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FAQs on Estrogen

1. What is estrogen function? 

Ans: Estrogen is a sex hormone that is produced by the ovaries that are situated in the female reproductive system. There is another sex hormone that is secreted by the ovaries and it is known as progesterone. However, the benefits and functions of estrogen in female bodies tend to be a lot higher than progesterone. This sex hormone helps in providing the physical female characteristics in human beings. It also helps in the facilitation of the menstrual cycle and aids in the birthing cycle as well. Estrogen has other functions such as increasing bone density and keeping the levels of cholesterol in check. Women also use estrogen tablets to increase the levels of estrogen in their bodies. 

2. What are some problems associated with irregular levels of estrogen in female bodies?

Ans: When women have low levels of estrogen in their bodies, there are a lot of problems that can occur. Some of these issues include irregularities in the menstrual cycle, mood swings, hot flashes, thinning as well as dryness of the vagina and much more. That is one of the main reasons why women choose estrogen tablets uses in order to increase their levels of estrogen in the body. Apart from that, having higher levels of estrogen than normal can lead to problems in women such as weight gain, menstrual issues, fibrocystic breasts, fatigue, PMS, loss of sexual drive, fibroids, and much more. Consulting with a gynecologist during such times can be a good idea.

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