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Describe Epidermis in Plants

The epidermis, ground tissue, and vascular tissue are three broad groups of plant tissues.


The epidermis is the layer of cells on the outside of plant shoots that protects them from moisture loss and physical damage. It's made up of a lot of different types of cells.


The epidermis of most plants has dorsoventral anatomy, with the top being adaxial and the lower being abaxial, and their architecture differs slightly, as well as their function. 


The secondary covering known as periderm is produced by some of the woody stems and other sections of the potato tubers, and it replaces the epidermis as the protective covering.


The epidermis is the main part of the skin on the leaves, as well as the stems, roots, flowers, fruits, and seeds.


Epidermal cells are usually clear. They have fewer chloroplasts or don't have any at all, except for the guard cells.


There are four layers to the epidermis:

  • Stratum Basale

  • Stratum Corneum

  • Stratum Granulosum

  • Stratum spinosum


Pavement cells, guard cells, and their secondary cells that surround the stomata and trichomes, commonly known as leaf hairs, make up the plant epidermis.


Trichomes are controlled by two primary trichome specificity genes and develop at a separate stage during leaf development.


Stomata are pores in the epidermis of plants that are encircled by two guard cells that control the aperture's opening and closure.


These guard cells are encircled by subsidiary cells, which serve as a support system for the guard cells. The growth of stomata, particularly their density on the leaf surface, is influenced by environmental factors.


Epidermis Plant Tissue - Importance

  • The epidermis serves as a barrier against water loss and infection.

  • The epidermis is in charge of regulating the gas exchange mechanism.

  • The epidermis is responsible for the secretion of metabolic chemicals.

  • The epidermis is responsible for the absorption of water and vital minerals.

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FAQs on Epidermis - Plants Tissue

1. What type of Tissue does the Epidermis have?

The epidermis is made up of epithelial tissue. It is the primary protective layer of the skin consisting of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. It is tough, relatively impermeable, and self-replacing.

2. How many types of Cells are in the Human Epidermis?

There are four important types of cells in the human epidermis are Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells. Keratinocyte is the primary cell type in the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin.

3. Why is Epidermis important for Plants?

Going through what is the role of epidermis in plants? And functions of the epidermis in the plant gives us the basic idea that why the epidermis is important for the plants. If the epidermis is absent in plants, it will lead the plants to become more susceptible to the attack of pathogens,  dust and germs. It will also lose excess water from the plant body. 

4. Define the criteria for the classification of Plant Tissue.

There are two bases onto which plant tissues are classified:

According to the part of the plant, they are present in. They are again classified into 3 tissues:

  • Epidermal Tissues – Covers exterior of the plant

  • Ground Tissues – Covers interiors of a plant.

  • Vascular Tissues – Moves water and other substances inside the plant.

On the type of cells they have.

  • Meristematic – These are again divided into 3 major types.

  • Permanent – These are again divided into 2 major types.

  • Simple

  • Complex 

5. What do you understand about Meristematic tissues?

Meristematic tissue is made up of cells that are growing, which makes the plant grow longer and thicker. 


The main growth of a plant happens only in a few places, like at the ends of its stems or roots. It is in these places that meristematic tissues can be found. 


Some of these tissues are made up of cells that are mostly spherical or polyhedral. They are also rectangular or square and have thin cell walls.

6. Explain Permanent tissues.

Permanent tissues are a collection of living or dead meristematic tissue cells. It loses its ability to divide and has been fixed in place in the plant body. 


Meristematic tissues have a particular function and lose their ability to divide. When a tissue takes on a permanent structure, size, and function, this is referred to as cellular differentiation.


Apart from the SImple and complex permanent tissue, it has one classification of tissue known as special or secretory tissues (glandular).

7. Is Blood a tissue or a fluid?

Blood is both a tissue and a fluid. It's called a tissue since it's made up of comparable specialised cells that perform specific duties. The blood is fluid because these cells are suspended in a liquid matrix (plasma).


Blood is composed of 55% plasma and 45% "formed elements," such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Blood is classified as a fluid connective tissue because of the living cells suspended in the plasma (not a fluid). It is the body's only fluid tissue.

8. What is the classification of Meristematic tissues?

Since the growth in length and diameter of plants is carried out by this tissue, they are again broadly classified as follows:

  • Apical Meristem – The apical region of stems and roots contains the apical meristem. It is responsible for the lengthening of the plants.

  • Lateral Meristem - The radial section of the stems and roots contains the lateral meristem. It is in charge of the thickness of the plants' growth.

  • Intercalary Meristem – The internodes or the base of the leaves contain the intercalary meristem.


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