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Epidermis - Plants Tissue

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Describe Epidermis in Plants

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Epidermis plants tissue is a single layer of cells, which covers the leaves, flowers, roots, and stem of the plant. The epidermis forms the boundary between the external environment and the internal environment of the plant. The epidermis of most of the plants shows dorsoventral anatomy, such as the upper is adaxial and the lower is abaxial and their construction is somewhat different and it may also differ in the function. Some of the woody stems and other parts of the potato tubers produce the secondary covering known as periderm, which replaces the epidermis as the protective covering. 

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The epidermis is the outermost cell layer of the plant body. Earlier, the cell of the leaf epidermis is regarded as the specialised parenchyma cell. But due to some of the modern references epidermis is classified as the dermal tissue. The epidermis is the main component of the dermal tissue of the leaves, and also stems, roots, flowers, fruits and seeds. Epidermal cells are usually transparent and they have fewer chloroplasts or lack them completely, except for the guard cells. 

The cells of the epidermis vary structurally and functionally. Most of the plants have epidermis. Most of the epidermis have the single-cell layer and some of the plants like Peperomia. Which have a periclinal cellular division within the protoderm of the leaves, have an epidermis with multiple cell layers. Epidermal cells are linked tightly to each other, to provide mechanical strength and protection to the plant. The walls of the epidermal cells above the ground plants will contain cutin and are covered with the cuticle. 

What is the Role of Epidermis in Plants?

It is the layer of the cell in the plants, which usually covers the roots, stems, leaves and flowers of the plant. The epidermis is made up of four layers and they are as follows - stratum basale, stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum.

Some of the important roles of epidermis in plants are as follows - 

  • They provide protection against the loss of water. 

  • It regulates the gas exchange process. 

  • It secretes the metabolic compounds. 

  • It also helps to absorb water and essential minerals.

What is the Function of Epidermis in Plants?

The two primary functions of the epidermis on the leaf, stem and flower of the plant are to limit water loss and to control the gas exchange. It also plays an important role in protecting the plant from biotic threats from bacteria, fungi and herbivores. They also help to protect from the abiotic stresses of high light and atmospheric pollution. 

What are Epidermal Cells? 

Epidermal cells include various types of the cell, which makes the epidermis of the plant. Although epidermal cells perform a number of important functions, their primary function is to protect the plant from several harmful factors of the natural stressors. It includes microbes, Chemical compounds as well as ultraviolet rays. 

These epidermal cells are situated very close to each other to prevent the loss of water, as a proactive mechanism. The epidermal cells of the plants are pavement cell, stomata guard cell, and trichomes. 

What is Epidermal Tissue?

The epidermal tissue in plants is the outermost protoderm derived layer of cell coverings. Epidermal tissue function is to cover the stem, root, leaf, flower, fruit, and seed parts of a plant.

Epidermal tissue consists of several different types of cell. Like epidermal cells, guard cells, subsidiary cells, and epidermal hairs also known as trichomes. Epidermal cells are the largest and the least specialised, and these cells are typically more elongated in the leaves of monocots than the leaves of dicots. 

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What type of Tissue does the Epidermis have?

Answer. The epidermis is made up of epithelial tissue. It is the primary protective layer of the skin consisting of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. It is tough, relatively impermeable, and self-replacing.

2. How many types of Cells are in the Human Epidermis?

Answer. There are four important types of cells in the human epidermis are Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells. Keratinocyte is the primary cell type in the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin.

3. Why is Epidermis important for Plants?

Answer. Going through what is the role of epidermis in plants? And functions of the epidermis in the plant gives us the basic idea that why the epidermis is important for the plants. If the epidermis is absent in plants, it will lead the plants to become more susceptible to the attack of pathogens,  dust and germs. It will also lose excess water from the plant body.