Enterogastrone

What is Enterogastrone?

The mucosa of the duodenum present in the lower gastrointestinal tract is responsible for the secretion of a hormone called Enterogastrone. It is termed the best known digestive hormone. The enterogastrone in the human body takes the response to dietary lipids. It inhibits the caudal motion of the contents of the chyme. So, enterogastrone hormone is widely used for treating peptic ulcers and duodenal ulcers. 


Enterogastrone Secretion

Pepsin is an endopeptidase, which breaks down the proteins into smaller peptides. The cells lining under the stomach are responsible for gastric digestive enzymes. It helps to digest protein present in food particles.  While pepsin mixture enters into duodenum makes the secretion of hormones. They are secretin, enterogastrone, cholecystokinin (pancreozymin), and villikinin. 


Function of Enterogastrone

Enterogastrone hormones are responsible for inhibiting the gastric secretion and mobility of the stomach. Enterogastrone transferred to glands and muscles of the stomach with the help of the bloodstream. The main function of enterogastrone is to block the secretion and activity of gastrin. Also, the function of enterogastrone is to slow down emptying the stomach by limiting the secretion of acids. Enterogastrone plays an important role in relaxing the digestive system and allowing food to pass through the valve of the stomach and intestine. 


Chemical Composition of Enterogastrone

Still, the chemical composition of enterogastrone is not identified. But after analyzing the substance of the intestine. The researchers found that enterogastrone has the same chemical compositions of two hormones namely secretin and cholecystokinin. 

Secretin: The secretin helps to regulate water homeostasis in the human body. It influences the duodenum environment by regulating the enzyme secretion of the stomach, liver, and pancreas. The S cells lining near the intestinal gland duodenum produces a type of peptide hormone, secretin. It regulates the secretion of gastric acid, pancreatic bicarbonate, and osmoregulation. These are stimulated by the pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretions.  

Cholecystokinin: Cholecystokinin is also known as pancreozymin. The enteroendocrine cells present near the small intestine, the duodenum, takes responsibility for the synthesis of cholecystokinin. It is a gastrointestinal system peptide hormone, which is responsible for the inhibition of digesting fats and protein in food particles. But it promotes enzyme secretion of the gallbladder. Protein-rich foods, healthy fats, and fiber-rich foods increase the secretion of cholecystokinin. 


Enterogastrone in Peptic Ulcers 

The peptic ulcer is developed on the lining of the stomach and upper portion of the small intestine. The bacteria, Helicobacter pylori is responsible for causing infection in the stomach and develops into peptic ulcers. The long-term intake of non-steroidal drugs also creates peptic ulcers. Peptic ulcers are of two types Gastric Ulcers, which occur inside the stomach, and Duodenal Ulcers, which occur on the upper portion of the small intestine. The person with peptic ulcers starts experiencing common stomach pain. 

The person with peptic ulcers gets symptoms like, Burning stomach pain, Feeling of fullness, bloating or belching, Intolerance to fatty foods, Heartburn, Nausea. During the severe stage of peptic ulcers, people experience, Vomiting or vomiting blood — which may appear red or black

Dark blood in stools, or stools that are black or tarry, Trouble to breathe, Feeling faint, Nausea or vomiting, Unexplained weight loss and Appetite changes. These are especially due to the action of acids in stomach linings. The empty stomach makes the cause severe. It especially happens between afternoon and night.  

Usually, peptic ulcers occur between the inner lining of the stomach and the small intestine. The acid acts on it may create bleeding or severe pain. The Enterogastrone secretes near the small intestine lowers the process of digestion and decreases the action of acid on the inner lining of the stomach. So, doctors prescribe enterogastrone therapy for treating peptic ulcers and also for avoiding the future cause of peptic ulcers.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Is GIP and Enterogastrone?

Ans: The gastric inhibitory peptide is also a member of the secretin hormone family. It inhibited the gastric mobility and secretion of acid. It reduces the action of acid on the lining of the stomach and intestine. And decreases the risk of ulcers.  Further, it mainly promotes the stimulation of insulin to make it respond to a meal. The GIP is involved in lipid metabolism and promotes fat deposition in the body. Based on the function of enterogastrone GIP is initially known as enterogastrone. 

2. Is Enterogastrone a Hormone?

Ans: The enterogastrone hormones are secreted by the duodenal mucosa, which is known as gastric epithelium or gastric surface epithelial metaplasia. This hormone starts to secrete in the small intestine or stomach when it encounters fatty food in the stomach or intestine. Also, it starts to release as an indicator for the pancreatic cells to secrete insulin to act upon the sugars and proteins present in the intestine. 

3. What is the Role of CCK?

Ans: The enterogastrone hormones are combinations of Cholecystokinin and Secretin. The Cholecystokinin hormones are secreted by the cells present on the upper surface of the small intestine. It acts as an indicator for stimulating the secretion of hydrochloric acid, amino acid, or fatty acid in the stomach or duodenum to promote and inhibit the secretion. The cholecystokinin also stimulates the gallbladder to release and contract to store bile juice into the intestine. Protein-rich foods, fiber-rich foods, and healthy fats increase the stimulation of cholecystokinin in the digestive system. 

4. Where is Gastrin Made?

Ans: The Gastrin hormone secreted by the G cells of the gastric antrum and duodenum, which is on the lining of stomach and upper small intestine. During a meal, the gastrin stimulates the stomach to release gastric acid and other related enzymes to boost digestion. Meanwhile, when the stomach is about to empty, it controls the secretion of acids and protects the stomach wall and intestine from the cause of ulcers. It enhances gastric mucosal growth, gastric mobility, and secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.