Red and White Muscles are the skeletal Muscles in our body and they perform some critical functions in the body. Skeletal Muscles, both Red and White, serve a variety of roles in the body. Red Muscles get their name from the fact that they have a lot of capillaries and are high levels of myoglobin and mitochondria, giving them a distinct Red color. White Muscles, on the other hand, have less mitochondria and myoglobin, giving them a "whitish" look. Continue reading to learn more about the Red and White Muscle. At Vedantu, we have created a summary of the difference between Red and White Muscle for an easy understanding of the students. Let’s first understand what these Muscles are.
There are almost 600 Muscles in a human body and these are classified into three categories; skeletal Muscles, cardiac Muscles, and smooth Muscles. The musculoskeletal system of the body has two basic components: the Muscles (musculo) and the skeletal structure upon which these Muscles are attached. These skeletal Muscles can be categorized into Red Muscles and White Muscles.
Red Muscles are Red because of the presence of dense capillaries that are rich in myoglobin and mitochondria. One of the main difference between Red and White Muscle Fibers is the colour which is deep Red for Red Muscles because of myoglobin which is present in the sarcoplasm (cytoplasm) of the Muscle Fiber. The myoglobin present in Red Muscles binds oxygen and stores it as oxymyoglobin in the Red Fibers. During Muscle contraction, oxymyoglobin releases the oxygen requiRed. A good example of Red Muscles is the extensor Muscle.
White Muscles have a lesser amount of myoglobin and mitochondria and hence appear whitish. An example of White Muscle is the eyeball Muscle. White Muscle is a kind of muscular tissue seen in fish that is made up of fast-twitch Muscle Fibers that are designed to contract quickly. Fast swimming movements and escape reflexes require White Muscles. They are grouped in a helical form rather than parallel to the body axis and lay deeper in the body than the Red Muscles utilized for sluggish swimming. When they compress, this configuration causes significant body curvature.
Let’s look at the Red and White Muscle difference in detail below
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Why are the Red Muscle Fibres Called Slow-twitch Fibres?
The twitching speed is one of the main difference between red and white muscle fibres. Red muscle fibres are called slow-twitch fibres as they contract slowly for a long time without experiencing any kind of fatigue. An example of red muscles is the extensor muscles. This is one of the reasons why red muscles are put to use during strenuous activities like exercising. Red muscle fibres get their energy from fat and glycogen by using oxygen. This is aerobic energy generation and since it is a lengthy process, the muscles contract slowly. Red muscles have a high tolerance for fatigue and do not tire out easily.
Why are the White Muscle Fibres Called Fast-twitch Fibres?
Unlike red muscle fibres, the white muscle fibres can contract faster and this is why they are called fast-twitch fibres. These muscles have low myoglobin and low oxygen content. White muscles therefore do not depend on oxygen for their energy but get it from glycogen. This anaerobic energy generation process is faster and it helps the white muscle fibres to contract faster and stronger. White muscles tire out easily and this is the reason why the body activates them at the last.
What are muscle fibers?
The dependence on oxidative phosphorylation differentiates skeletal Muscle Fibers into unique Fiber types with diverse metabolic features (OXPHOS). We discoveRed that, as compaRed to glycolytic Fibers, OXPHOS-dependent Fibers had extended mitochondrial networks with greater fusion rates, which are reliant on the mitofusins Mfn1 and Mfn2. The conversion of a glycolytic Fiber to an oxidative IIA type is connected to mitochondrial elongation, implying that mitochondrial fusion is related to metabolic status. Furthermore, we show that mitochondrial proteins are divided into separate domains centered on their origin nuclei. The mitochondrial dynamics proteins Mfn1, Mfn2, and Mff govern the domain dimensions, which are determined by Fiber type. Our findings show that mitochondrial dynamics are tuned to fiber type physiology, which explains the segmental abnormalities seen in aging and sick Muscle Fibers.