Difference Between Nervous System and Endocrine System

The nervous and endocrine systems are the two most important regulatory systems of several living beings. These two systems help the body to work according to its surrounding environments and also helps protect it. 

The working pattern of these two systems is similar, as both send signals to targeted cells from the brain. However, the difference between nervous system and endocrine system is also very distinct. 

To understand the differences between endocrine and nervous system, the basic concepts of these two systems need to be clear in the first place. 


The Nervous System

The nervous system of the body receives, processes, and reacts to the collected information by using electrical impulses. 


Cells of the Nervous System

Two types of cells are present in the nervous system – neurons and glial cells. Neurons are responsible for collecting and transmitting the received information by sending electrical impulses through the entire body. Glial cells surround the neurons and provide them required metabolic and mechanical support. 

Three Categories of Neurons are Visible Based on their Functions-

  • Sensory Neurons

The primary objective of these neurons is to transmit impulses from the sense-receiving organs of the body such as ears, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose.

  • Motor Neurons

These types of neurons are designed to carry impulses to different glands and muscles. 

  • Interneurons

Interneurons pass the signals between different types of neurons.


Parts of the Nervous System

The Nervous System is Regulated by two Parts – 

  1. Central Nervous System or CNS

Brain and spinal cord are the two parts of CNS. As per the transmitted information through the neurons, the brain develops command for the rest of the body. The spinal cord works as the connector between the brain and the other parts of the body.

  1. Peripheral Nervous System or PNS

The PNS has two parts – the somatic nervous system or SNS and the automatic nervous system or ANS. The SNS controls reflexes like pulling hands from a hot surface and other voluntary activities like movements of muscles.

The ANS regulates the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Also, this system controls activities that are not under conscious control.


The Endocrine System

The endocrine system controls the operations of organs and cells by using chemical signals. This chemical signals pass through the blood and is called hormones.


Common Glands and Hormones

Gland

Hormones

Act

Adrenal

Adrenaline

In an emergency like a fight or fight

Adrenal

Cortisol

Controls immunity and metabolism

Thyroid

Thyroid

Controls metabolism

Testes, occasionally from ovaries and adrenal gland

Testosterone

Regulates male reproductive and sexual development

Ovaries

Estrogen

Regulates female reproductive and sexual development

Pancreas

Insulin

Controls blood sugar and storage of fat

Pancreas

Glucagon

Controls blood sugar


Difference Between Nervous System and Endocrine System

Nervous System 

Endocrine System

In the nervous system, electrical impulses carry the messages to different organs of the body.

The endocrine system uses hormones, chemical signals, to carry commands to the destined organs and cells.

Nerve or electrical impulses transmit through neurons.

Hormones travel through bloodstreams.

Brains and spinal cords, the two major body parts are used in this regulatory system.

Several organs like testes, ovaries, etc. and glands like pituitary, thyroid, etc. regulate the hormones.

The nervous system can control voluntary as well as involuntary activities.

All the activities and operations under the endocrine system are involuntary.

Electrical impulses can enter into the targeted cells by using neurotransmitters at the synaptic gap and channels of potassium and sodium.

Hormones use a diffusing mechanism to travel via the plasma membrane of the organs or fusing mechanism with the cell receptors to enter the aimed cells.

All the activities are majorly localised.

All the activities are majorly widespread.

Signal transmission process is fast.

Signal transmission process is slow.

The operating cell in the nervous system are interconnected. 

The involved organs are not interconnected. Therefore, through the blood vessels, the hormones are transferred.


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FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Write any two Differences Between Endocrine and Nervous System.

Ans. The primary difference between nervous system and endocrine system is in nervous system electrical impulses are used, whereas the endocrine system involves chemical signal called hormones. Secondly, the nervous system is formed by a collection of neuron cells, glands and organs operate the endocrine system.

2. How does Endocrine Regulation System Work?

Ans. A mechanism called negative feedback controls this system. Controlling the concentration of the hormones is majorly regulated in this system.

3. What are the Parts of the Nervous System?

Ans. Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system are the two parts of the nervous system.